MySQL Reference Manual for version 3.23.56.


1 General Information

The MySQL (TM) software delivers a very fast, multi-threaded, multi-user, and robust SQL (Structured Query Language) database server. MySQL Server is intended for mission-critical, heavy-load production systems as well as for embedding into mass-deployed software. MySQL is a trademark of MySQL AB.

The MySQL software is Dual Licensed. Users can choose to use the MySQL software as an Open Source/Free Software product under the terms of the GNU General Public License (http://www.gnu.org/licenses/) or can purchase a standard commercial license from MySQL AB. See section 1.4 MySQL Support and Licensing.

The MySQL web site (http://www.mysql.com/) provides the latest information about the MySQL software.

The following list describes some sections of particular interest in this manual:

Important:

Reports of errors (often called bugs), as well as questions and comments, should be sent to the mailing list at mysql@lists.mysql.com. See section 1.6.1.3 How to Report Bugs or Problems.

The mysqlbug script should be used to generate bug reports.

For source distributions, the mysqlbug script can be found in the `scripts' directory. For binary distributions, mysqlbug can be found in the `bin' directory (`/usr/bin' for the MySQL-server RPM package).

If you have found a sensitive security bug in MySQL Server, you should send an e-mail to security@mysql.com.

1.1 About This Manual

This is the MySQL reference manual; it documents MySQL up to Version 3.23.56. Functional changes are always indicated with reference to the version, so this manual is also suitable if you are using an older version of the MySQL software. Being a reference manual, it does not provide general instruction on SQL or relational database concepts.

As the MySQL Database Software is under constant development, the manual is also updated frequently. The most recent version of this manual is available at http://www.mysql.com/documentation/ in many different formats, including HTML, PDF, and Windows HLP versions.

The primary document is the Texinfo file. The HTML version is produced automatically using a modified version of texi2html. The plain text and Info versions are produced with makeinfo. The PostScript version is produced using texi2dvi and dvips. The PDF version is produced with pdftex.

If you have a hard time finding information in the manual, you can try our searchable version at http://www.mysql.com/doc/.

If you have any suggestions concerning additions or corrections to this manual, please send them to the documentation team at docs@mysql.com.

This manual was initially written by David Axmark and Michael (Monty) Widenius. It is currently maintained by Michael (Monty) Widenius, Arjen Lentz, and Paul DuBois. For other contributors, see section C Credits.

The copyright (2003) to this manual is owned by the Swedish company MySQL AB. See section 1.4.2 Copyrights and Licenses Used by MySQL.

1.1.1 Conventions Used in This Manual

This manual uses certain typographical conventions:

constant
Constant-width font is used for command names and options; SQL statements; database, table, and column names; C and Perl code; and environment variables. Example: ``To see how mysqladmin works, invoke it with the --help option.''
`filename'
Constant-width font with surrounding quotes is used for filenames and pathnames. Example: ``The distribution is installed under the `/usr/local/' directory.''
`c'
Constant-width font with surrounding quotes is also used to indicate character sequences. Example: ``To specify a wildcard, use the `%' character.''
italic
Italic font is used for emphasis, like this.
boldface
Boldface font is used in table headings and to convey especially strong emphasis.

When commands are shown that are meant to be executed by a particular program, the program is indicated by a prompt shown before the command. For example, shell> indicates a command that you execute from your login shell, and mysql> indicates a command that you execute from the mysql client program:

shell> type a shell command here
mysql> type a mysql command here

Shell commands are shown using Bourne shell syntax. If you are using a csh-style shell, you may need to issue commands slightly differently. For example, the sequence to set an environment variable and run a command looks like this in Bourne shell syntax:

shell> VARNAME=value some_command

For csh, you would execute the sequence like this:

shell> setenv VARNAME value
shell> some_command

Often database, table, and column names must be substituted into commands. To indicate that such substitution is necessary, this manual uses db_name, tbl_name and col_name. For example, you might see a statement like this:

mysql> SELECT col_name FROM db_name.tbl_name;

This means that if you were to enter a similar statement, you would supply your own database, table, and column names, perhaps like this:

mysql> SELECT author_name FROM biblio_db.author_list;

SQL keywords are not case-sensitive and may be written in uppercase or lowercase. This manual uses uppercase.

In syntax descriptions, square brackets (`[' and `]') are used to indicate optional words or clauses. For example, in the following statement, IF EXISTS is optional:

DROP TABLE [IF EXISTS] tbl_name

When a syntax element consists of a number of alternatives, the alternatives are separated by vertical bars (`|'). When one member from a set of choices may be chosen, the alternatives are listed within square brackets (`[' and `]'):

TRIM([[BOTH | LEADING | TRAILING] [remstr] FROM] str)

When one member from a set of choices must be chosen, the alternatives are listed within braces (`{' and `}'):

{DESCRIBE | DESC} tbl_name {col_name | wild}

1.2 What Is MySQL?

MySQL, the most popular Open Source SQL database, is developed, distributed and supported by MySQL AB. MySQL AB is a commercial company founded by the MySQL developers that builds its business providing services around the MySQL database. See section 1.3 What Is MySQL AB?.

The MySQL web site (http://www.mysql.com/) provides the latest information about MySQL software and MySQL AB.

MySQL is a database management system.
A database is a structured collection of data. It may be anything from a simple shopping list to a picture gallery or the vast amounts of information in a corporate network. To add, access, and process data stored in a computer database, you need a database management system such as MySQL Server. Since computers are very good at handling large amounts of data, database management plays a central role in computing, as stand-alone utilities, or as parts of other applications.
MySQL is a relational database management system.
A relational database stores data in separate tables rather than putting all the data in one big storeroom. This adds speed and flexibility. The tables are linked by defined relations making it possible to combine data from several tables on request. The SQL part of ``MySQL'' stands for ``Structured Query Language''@-the most common standardised language used to access databases.
MySQL software is Open Source.
Open Source means that it is possible for anyone to use and modify. Anybody can download the MySQL software from the Internet and use it without paying anything. Anybody so inclined can study the source code and change it to fit their needs. The MySQL software uses the GPL (GNU General Public License), http://www.gnu.org/licenses/, to define what you may and may not do with the software in different situations. If you feel uncomfortable with the GPL or need to embed MySQL code into a commercial application you can buy a commercially licensed version from us. See section 1.4.3 MySQL Licenses.
Why use the MySQL Database Server?
The MySQL Database Server is very fast, reliable, and easy to use. If that is what you are looking for, you should give it a try. MySQL Server also has a practical set of features developed in close cooperation with our users. You can find a performance comparison of MySQL Server to some other database managers on our benchmark page. See section 5.1.4 The MySQL Benchmark Suite. MySQL Server was originally developed to handle large databases much faster than existing solutions and has been successfully used in highly demanding production environments for several years. Though under constant development, MySQL Server today offers a rich and useful set of functions. Its connectivity, speed, and security make MySQL Server highly suited for accessing databases on the Internet.
The technical features of MySQL Server
For advanced technical information, see section 6 MySQL Language Reference. The MySQL Database Software is a client/server system that consists of a multi-threaded SQL server that supports different backends, several different client programs and libraries, administrative tools, and a wide range of programming interfaces (APIs). We also provide MySQL Server as a multi-threaded library which you can link into your application to get a smaller, faster, easier-to-manage product.
There is a large amount of contributed MySQL software available.
It is very likely that you will find that your favorite application or language already supports the MySQL Database Server.

The official way to pronounce MySQL is ``My Ess Que Ell'' (not ``my sequel''), but we don't mind if you pronounce it as ``my sequel'' or in some other localised way.

1.2.1 History of MySQL

We once started out with the intention of using mSQL to connect to our tables using our own fast low-level (ISAM) routines. However, after some testing we came to the conclusion that mSQL was not fast enough nor flexible enough for our needs. This resulted in a new SQL interface to our database but with almost the same API interface as mSQL. This API was chosen to ease porting of third-party code.

The derivation of the name MySQL is not perfectly clear. Our base directory and a large number of our libraries and tools have had the prefix ``my'' for well over 10 years. However, Monty's daughter (some years younger) is also named My. Which of the two gave its name to MySQL is still a mystery, even for us.

1.2.2 The Main Features of MySQL

The following list describes some of the important characteristics of the MySQL Database Software. See section 1.5 MySQL 4.x In A Nutshell.

Internals and Portability
Column Types
Commands and Functions
Security
Scalability and Limits
Connectivity
Localisation
Clients and Tools

1.2.3 How Stable Is MySQL?

This section addresses the questions ``How stable is MySQL Server?'' and ``Can I depend on MySQL Server in this project?'' We will try to clarify these issues and answer some important questions that concern many potential users. The information in this section is based on data gathered from the mailing list, which is very active in identifying problems as well as reporting types of use.

Original code stems back from the early '80s, providing a stable code base, and the ISAM table format remains backward-compatible. At TcX, the predecessor of MySQL AB, MySQL code has worked in projects since mid-1996, without any problems. When the MySQL Database Software was released to a wider public, we noticed that there were some pieces of ``untested code'' that were quickly found by the new users who made different types of queries from us. Each new release has had fewer portability problems (even though each new release has had many new features).

Each release of the MySQL Server has been usable. There have only been problems when users try code from the ``gray zones.'' Naturally, new users don't know what the gray zones are; this section attempts to indicate those that are currently known. The descriptions mostly deal with Version 3.23 of MySQL Server. All known and reported bugs are fixed in the latest version, with the exception of those listed in the bugs section, which are things that are design-related. See section 1.7.5 Known Errors and Design Deficiencies in MySQL.

The MySQL Server design is multi-layered with independent modules. Some of the newer modules are listed here with an indication of how well-tested each of them is:

Replication -- Gamma
Large server clusters using replication are in production use, with good results. Work on enhanced replication features is continuing in MySQL 4.x.
InnoDB tables -- Stable (in 3.23 from 3.23.49)
The InnoDB transactional storage engine has now been declared stable in the MySQL 3.23 tree, starting from version 3.23.49. InnoDB is being used in large, heavy-load production systems.
BDB tables -- Gamma
The Berkeley DB code is very stable, but we are still improving the BDB transactional storage engine interface in MySQL Server, so it will take some time before this is as well tested as the other table types.
FULLTEXT -- Beta
Full-text search works but is not yet widely used. Important enhancements are being implemented for MySQL 4.0.
MyODBC 2.50 (uses ODBC SDK 2.5) -- Gamma
Increasingly in wide use. Some issues brought up appear to be application-related and independent of the ODBC driver or underlying database server.
Automatic recovery of MyISAM tables -- Gamma
This status only regards the new code in the MyISAM storage engine that checks if the table was closed properly on open and executes an automatic check/repair of the table if it wasn't.
Bulk-insert -- Alpha
New feature in MyISAM tables in MySQL 4.0 for faster insert of many rows.
Locking -- Gamma
This is very system-dependent. On some systems there are big problems using standard OS locking (fcntl()). In these cases, you should run mysqld with the --skip-external-locking flag. Problems are known to occur on some Linux systems, and on SunOS when using NFS-mounted filesystems.

MySQL AB provides high-quality support for paying customers, but the MySQL mailing list usually provides answers to common questions. Bugs are usually fixed right away with a patch; for serious bugs, there is almost always a new release.

1.2.4 How Big Can MySQL Tables Be?

MySQL Version 3.22 has a 4G limit on table size. With the new MyISAM table type in MySQL Version 3.23, the maximum table size is pushed up to 8 million terabytes (2 ^ 63 bytes).

Note, however, that operating systems have their own file-size limits. Here are some examples:

Operating System File-Size Limit
Linux-Intel 32 bit 2G, 4G or more, depends on Linux version
Linux-Alpha 8T (?)
Solaris 2.5.1 2G (possible 4G with patch)
Solaris 2.6 4G (can be changed with flag)
Solaris 2.7 Intel 4G
Solaris 2.7 UltraSPARC 512G

On Linux 2.2 you can get bigger tables than 2G by using the LFS patch for the ext2 filesystem. On Linux 2.4 patches also exist for ReiserFS to get support for big files.

This means that the table size for MySQL databases is normally limited by the operating system.

By default, MySQL tables have a maximum size of about 4G. You can check the maximum table size for a table with the SHOW TABLE STATUS command or with the myisamchk -dv table_name. See section 4.5.6 SHOW Syntax.

If you need bigger tables than 4G (and your operating system supports this), you should set the AVG_ROW_LENGTH and MAX_ROWS parameter when you create your table. See section 6.5.3 CREATE TABLE Syntax. You can also set these later with ALTER TABLE. See section 6.5.4 ALTER TABLE Syntax.

If your big table is going to be read-only, you could use myisampack to merge and compress many tables to one. myisampack usually compresses a table by at least 50%, so you can have, in effect, much bigger tables. See section 4.7.4 myisampack, The MySQL Compressed Read-only Table Generator.

You can go around the operating system file limit for MyISAM data files by using the RAID option. See section 6.5.3 CREATE TABLE Syntax.

Another solution can be the included MERGE library, which allows you to handle a collection of identical tables as one. See section 7.2 MERGE Tables.

1.2.5 Year 2000 Compliance

The MySQL Server itself has no problems with Year 2000 (Y2K) compliance:

You may run into problems with applications that use MySQL Server in a way that is not Y2K-safe. For example, many old applications store or manipulate years using 2-digit values (which are ambiguous) rather than 4-digit values. This problem may be compounded by applications that use values such as 00 or 99 as ``missing'' value indicators.

Unfortunately, these problems may be difficult to fix because different applications may be written by different programmers, each of whom may use a different set of conventions and date-handling functions.

Here is a simple demonstration illustrating that MySQL Server doesn't have any problems with dates until the year 2030:

mysql> DROP TABLE IF EXISTS y2k;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

mysql> CREATE TABLE y2k (date DATE,
    ->                   date_time DATETIME,
    ->                   time_stamp TIMESTAMP);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> INSERT INTO y2k VALUES
    -> ("1998-12-31","1998-12-31 23:59:59",19981231235959),
    -> ("1999-01-01","1999-01-01 00:00:00",19990101000000),
    -> ("1999-09-09","1999-09-09 23:59:59",19990909235959),
    -> ("2000-01-01","2000-01-01 00:00:00",20000101000000),
    -> ("2000-02-28","2000-02-28 00:00:00",20000228000000),
    -> ("2000-02-29","2000-02-29 00:00:00",20000229000000),
    -> ("2000-03-01","2000-03-01 00:00:00",20000301000000),
    -> ("2000-12-31","2000-12-31 23:59:59",20001231235959),
    -> ("2001-01-01","2001-01-01 00:00:00",20010101000000),
    -> ("2004-12-31","2004-12-31 23:59:59",20041231235959),
    -> ("2005-01-01","2005-01-01 00:00:00",20050101000000),
    -> ("2030-01-01","2030-01-01 00:00:00",20300101000000),
    -> ("2050-01-01","2050-01-01 00:00:00",20500101000000);
Query OK, 13 rows affected (0.01 sec)
Records: 13  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> SELECT * FROM y2k;
+------------+---------------------+----------------+
| date       | date_time           | time_stamp     |
+------------+---------------------+----------------+
| 1998-12-31 | 1998-12-31 23:59:59 | 19981231235959 |
| 1999-01-01 | 1999-01-01 00:00:00 | 19990101000000 |
| 1999-09-09 | 1999-09-09 23:59:59 | 19990909235959 |
| 2000-01-01 | 2000-01-01 00:00:00 | 20000101000000 |
| 2000-02-28 | 2000-02-28 00:00:00 | 20000228000000 |
| 2000-02-29 | 2000-02-29 00:00:00 | 20000229000000 |
| 2000-03-01 | 2000-03-01 00:00:00 | 20000301000000 |
| 2000-12-31 | 2000-12-31 23:59:59 | 20001231235959 |
| 2001-01-01 | 2001-01-01 00:00:00 | 20010101000000 |
| 2004-12-31 | 2004-12-31 23:59:59 | 20041231235959 |
| 2005-01-01 | 2005-01-01 00:00:00 | 20050101000000 |
| 2030-01-01 | 2030-01-01 00:00:00 | 20300101000000 |
| 2050-01-01 | 2050-01-01 00:00:00 | 00000000000000 |
+------------+---------------------+----------------+
13 rows in set (0.00 sec)

This shows that the DATE and DATETIME types will not give any problems with future dates (they handle dates until the year 9999).

The TIMESTAMP type, which is used to store the current time, has a range up to only 2030-01-01. TIMESTAMP has a range of 1970 to 2030 on 32-bit machines (signed value). On 64-bit machines it handles times up to 2106 (unsigned value).

Even though MySQL Server is Y2K-compliant, it is your responsibility to provide unambiguous input. See section 6.2.2.1 Y2K Issues and Date Types for MySQL Server's rules for dealing with ambiguous date input data (data containing 2-digit year values).

1.3 What Is MySQL AB?

MySQL AB is the company of the MySQL founders and main developers. MySQL AB was originally established in Sweden by David Axmark, Allan Larsson, and Michael Monty Widenius.

All the developers of the MySQL server are employed by the company. We are a virtual organisation with people in a dozen countries around the world. We communicate extensively over the Net every day with each other and with our users, supporters and partners.

We are dedicated to developing the MySQL software and spreading our database to new users. MySQL AB owns the copyright to the MySQL source code, the MySQL logo and trademark, and this manual. See section 1.2 What Is MySQL?.

The MySQL core values show our dedication to MySQL and Open Source.

We want the MySQL Database Software to be:

MySQL AB and the people at MySQL AB:

The MySQL web site (http://www.mysql.com/) provides the latest information about MySQL and MySQL AB.

1.3.1 The Business Model and Services of MySQL AB

One of the most common questions we encounter is: ``How can you make a living from something you give away for free?'' This is how.

MySQL AB makes money on support, services, commercial licenses, and royalties, and we use these revenues to fund product development and to expand the MySQL business.

The company has been profitable since its inception. In October 2001, we accepted venture financing from leading Scandinavian investors and a handful of business angels. This investment is used to solidify our business model and build a basis for sustainable growth.

1.3.1.1 Support

MySQL AB is run and owned by the founders and main developers of the MySQL database. The developers are committed to giving support to customers and other users in order to stay in touch with their needs and problems. All our support is given by qualified developers. Really tricky questions are answered by Michael Monty Widenius, principal author of the MySQL Server. See section 1.4.1 Support Offered by MySQL AB.

For more information and ordering support at various levels, see http://www.mysql.com/support/ or contact our sales staff at sales@mysql.com.

1.3.1.2 Training and Certification

MySQL AB delivers MySQL and related training worldwide. We offer both open courses and in-house courses tailored to the specific needs of your company. MySQL Training is also available through our partners, the Authorised MySQL Training Centers.

Our training material uses the same example databases as our documentation and our sample applications, and it is always updated to reflect the latest MySQL version. Our trainers are backed by the development team to guarantee the quality of the training and the continuous development of the course material. This also ensures that no questions raised during the courses remain unanswered.

Attending our training courses will enable you to achieve your goals related to your MySQL applications. You will also:

If you are interested in our training as a potential participant or as a training partner, please visit the training section at http://www.mysql.com/training/ or contact us at: training@mysql.com.

For details about the MySQL Certification Program, please see http://www.mysql.com/certification/.

1.3.1.3 Consulting

MySQL AB and its Authorised Partners offer consulting services to users of MySQL Server and to those who embed MySQL Server in their own software, all over the world.

Our consultants can help you design and tune your databases, construct efficient queries, tune your platform for optimal performance, resolve migration issues, set up replication, build robust transactional applications, and more. We also help customers embed MySQL Server in their products and applications for large-scale deployment.

Our consultants work in close collaboration with our development team, which ensures the technical quality of our professional services. Consulting assignments range from 2-day power-start sessions to projects that span weeks and months. Our expertise not only covers MySQL Server, but also extends into programming and scripting languages such as PHP, Perl, and more.

If you are interested in our consulting services or want to become a consulting partner, please visit the consulting section of our web site at http://www.mysql.com/consulting/ or contact our consulting staff at consulting@mysql.com.

1.3.1.4 Commercial Licenses

The MySQL database is released under the GNU General Public License (GPL). This means that the MySQL software can be used free of charge under the GPL. If you do not want to be bound by the GPL terms (like the requirement that your own application becomes GPL as well), you may purchase a commercial license for the same product from MySQL AB. See http://www.mysql.com/products/pricing.html. Since MySQL AB owns the copyright to the MySQL source code, we are able to employ Dual Licensing which means that the same product is available under GPL and under a commercial license. This does not in any way affect the Open Source commitment of MySQL AB. For details about when a commercial license is required, please see section 1.4.3 MySQL Licenses.

We also sell commercial licenses of third-party Open Source GPL software that adds value to MySQL Server. A good example is the InnoDB transactional storage engine that offers ACID support, row-level locking, crash recovery, multi-versioning, foreign key support, and more. See section 7.5 InnoDB Tables.

1.3.1.5 Partnering

MySQL AB has a worldwide partner programme that covers training courses, consulting & support, publications plus reselling and distributing MySQL and related products. MySQL AB Partners get visibility on the http://www.mysql.com/ web site and the right to use special versions of the MySQL trademarks to identify their products and promote their business.

If you are interested in becoming a MySQL AB Partner, please e-mail partner@mysql.com.

The word MySQL and the MySQL dolphin logo are trademarks of MySQL AB. See section 1.4.4 MySQL AB Logos and Trademarks. These trademarks represent a significant value that the MySQL founders have built over the years.

1.3.1.6 Advertising

The MySQL web site (http://www.mysql.com/) is popular among developers and users. In October 2001, we served 10 million page views. Our visitors represent a group that makes purchase decisions and recommendations for both software and hardware. Twelve percent of our visitors authorise purchase decisions, and only nine percent are not involved in purchase decisions at all. More than 65% have made one or more online business purchase within the last half-year, and 70% plan to make one in the next months.

1.3.2 Contact Information

The MySQL web site (http://www.mysql.com/) provides the latest information about MySQL and MySQL AB.

For press service and inquiries not covered in our News releases (http://www.mysql.com/news/), please send e-mail to press@mysql.com.

If you have a valid support contract with MySQL AB, you will get timely, precise answers to your technical questions about the MySQL software. For more information, see section 1.4.1 Support Offered by MySQL AB. On our website, see http://www.mysql.com/support/, or send an e-mail message to sales@mysql.com.

For information about MySQL training, please visit the training section at http://www.mysql.com/training/. If you have restricted access to the Internet, please contact the MySQL AB training staff at training@mysql.com. See section 1.3.1.2 Training and Certification.

For information on the MySQL Certification Program, please see http://www.mysql.com/certification/. See section 1.3.1.2 Training and Certification.

If you're interested in consulting, please visit the consulting section at http://www.mysql.com/consulting/. If you have restricted access to the Internet, please contact the MySQL AB consulting staff at consulting@mysql.com. See section 1.3.1.3 Consulting.

Commercial licenses may be purchased online at https://order.mysql.com/. There you will also find information on how to fax your purchase order to MySQL AB. More information about licensing can be found at http://www.mysql.com/products/pricing.html. If you have questions regarding licensing or you want a quote for a high-volume license deal, please fill in the contact form on our web site (http://www.mysql.com/) or send an e-mail message to licensing@mysql.com (for licensing questions) or to sales@mysql.com (for sales inquiries). See section 1.4.3 MySQL Licenses.

If you represent a business that is interested in partnering with MySQL AB, please send e-mail to partner@mysql.com. See section 1.3.1.5 Partnering.

For more information on the MySQL trademark policy, refer to http://www.mysql.com/company/trademark.html or send e-mail to trademark@mysql.com. See section 1.4.4 MySQL AB Logos and Trademarks.

If you are interested in any of the MySQL AB jobs listed in our jobs section (http://www.mysql.com/company/jobs/), please send an e-mail message to jobs@mysql.com. Please do not send your CV as an attachment, but rather as plain text at the end of your e-mail message.

For general discussion among our many users, please direct your attention to the appropriate mailing list. See section 1.6.1 MySQL Mailing Lists.

Reports of errors (often called bugs), as well as questions and comments, should be sent to the mailing list at mysql@lists.mysql.com. If you have found a sensitive security bug in the MySQL Server, please send an e-mail to security@mysql.com. See section 1.6.1.3 How to Report Bugs or Problems.

If you have benchmark results that we can publish, please contact us at benchmarks@mysql.com.

If you have any suggestions concerning additions or corrections to this manual, please send them to the manual team at docs@mysql.com.

For questions or comments about the workings or content of the MySQL web site (http://www.mysql.com/), please send e-mail to webmaster@mysql.com.

MySQL AB has a privacy policy, which can be read at http://www.mysql.com/company/privacy.html. For any queries regarding this policy, please e-mail privacy@mysql.com.

For all other inquires, please send e-mail to info@mysql.com.

1.4 MySQL Support and Licensing

This section describes MySQL support and licensing arrangements.

1.4.1 Support Offered by MySQL AB

Technical support from MySQL AB means individualised answers to your unique problems direct from the software engineers who code the MySQL database engine.

We try to take a broad and inclusive view of technical support. Almost any problem involving MySQL software is important to us if it's important to you. Typically customers seek help on how to get different commands and utilities to work, remove performance bottlenecks, restore crashed systems, understand operating system or networking impacts on MySQL, set up best practices for backup and recovery, utilise APIs, etc. Our support covers only the MySQL server and our own utilities, not third-party products that access the MySQL server, though we try to help with these where we can.

Detailed information about our various support options is given at http://www.mysql.com/support/, where support contracts can also be ordered online. If you have restricted access to the Internet, contact our sales staff at sales@mysql.com.

Technical support is like life insurance. You can live happily without it for years, but when your hour arrives it becomes critically important, yet it's too late to buy it! If you use MySQL Server for important applications and encounter sudden troubles, it might take too long to figure out all the answers yourself. You may need immediate access to the most experienced MySQL troubleshooters available, those employed by MySQL AB.

1.4.2 Copyrights and Licenses Used by MySQL

MySQL AB owns the copyright to the MySQL source code, the MySQL logos and trademarks and this manual. See section 1.3 What Is MySQL AB?. Several different licenses are relevant to the MySQL distribution:

  1. All the MySQL-specific source in the server, the mysqlclient library and the client, as well as the GNU readline library is covered by the GNU General Public License. See section H GNU General Public License. The text of this license can also be found as the file `COPYING' in the distributions.
  2. The GNU getopt library is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License. See section I GNU Lesser General Public License.
  3. Some parts of the source (the regexp library) are covered by a Berkeley-style copyright.
  4. Older versions of MySQL (3.22 and earlier) are subject to a more strict license (http://www.mysql.com/products/mypl.html). See the documentation of the specific version for information.
  5. The manual is currently not distributed under a GPL-style license. Use of the manual is subject to the following terms: Please e-mail docs@mysql.com for more information or if you are interested in doing a translation.

For information about how the MySQL licenses work in practice, please refer to section 1.4.3 MySQL Licenses. Also see section 1.4.4 MySQL AB Logos and Trademarks.

1.4.3 MySQL Licenses

The MySQL software is released under the GNU General Public License (GPL), which probably is the best known Open Source license. The formal terms of the GPL license can be found at http://www.gnu.org/licenses/. See also http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-faq.html and http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/enforcing-gpl.html.

Since the MySQL software is released under the GPL, it may often be used for free, but for certain uses you may want or need to buy commercial licenses from MySQL AB at https://order.mysql.com/. See http://www.mysql.com/products/licensing.html for more information.

Older versions of MySQL (3.22 and earlier) are subject to a more strict license (http://www.mysql.com/products/mypl.html). See the documentation of the specific version for information.

Please note that the use of the MySQL software under commercial license, GPL, or the old MySQL license does not automatically give you the right to use MySQL AB trademarks. See section 1.4.4 MySQL AB Logos and Trademarks.

1.4.3.1 Using the MySQL Software Under a Commercial License

The GPL license is contagious in the sense that when a program is linked to a GPL program all the source code for all the parts of the resulting product must also be released under the GPL. Otherwise you break the license terms and forfeit your right to use the GPL program altogether and also risk damages.

You need a commercial license:

If you require a license, you will need one for each installation of the MySQL software. This covers any number of CPUs on a machine, and there is no artificial limit on the number of clients that connect to the server in any way.

For commercial licenses, please visit our website at http://www.mysql.com/products/licensing.html. For support contracts, see http://www.mysql.com/support/. If you have special needs or you have restricted access to the Internet, please contact our sales staff at sales@mysql.com.

1.4.3.2 Using the MySQL Software for Free Under GPL

You can use the MySQL software for free under the GPL if you adhere to the conditions of the GPL. For more complete coverage of the common questions about the GPL see the generic FAQ from the Free Software Foundation at http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-faq.html. Some common cases:

If your use of MySQL database software does not require a commercial license, we encourage you to purchase support from MySQL AB anyway. This way you contribute toward MySQL development and also gain immediate advantages for yourself. See section 1.4.1 Support Offered by MySQL AB.

If you use the MySQL database software in a commercial context such that you profit by its use, we ask that you further the development of the MySQL software by purchasing some level of support. We feel that if the MySQL database helps your business, it is reasonable to ask that you help MySQL AB. (Otherwise, if you ask us support questions, you are not only using for free something into which we've put a lot a work, you're asking us to provide free support, too.)

1.4.4 MySQL AB Logos and Trademarks

Many users of the MySQL database want to display the MySQL AB dolphin logo on their web sites, books, or boxed products. We welcome and encourage this, although it should be noted that the word MySQL and the MySQL dolphin logo are trademarks of MySQL AB and may only be used as stated in our trademark policy at http://www.mysql.com/company/trademark.html.

1.4.4.1 The Original MySQL Logo

The MySQL dolphin logo was designed by the Finnish advertising agency Priority in 2001. The dolphin was chosen as a suitable symbol for the MySQL database since it is a smart, fast, and lean animal, effortlessly navigating oceans of data. We also happen to like dolphins.

The original MySQL logo may only be used by representatives of MySQL AB and by those having a written agreement allowing them to do so.

1.4.4.2 MySQL Logos that may be Used Without Written Permission

We have designed a set of special Conditional Use logos that may be downloaded from our web site at http://www.mysql.com/press/logos.html and used on third-party web sites without written permission from MySQL AB. The use of these logos is not entirely unrestricted but, as the name implies, subject to our trademark policy that is also available on our web site. You should read through the trademark policy if you plan to use them. The requirements are basically:

Contact us at trademark@mysql.com to inquire about special arrangements to fit your needs.

1.4.4.3 When do you need a Written Permission to use MySQL Logos?

In the following cases you need a written permission from MySQL AB before using MySQL logos:

Out of legal and commercial reasons we have to monitor the use of MySQL trademarks on products, books, etc. We will usually require a fee for displaying MySQL AB logos on commercial products, since we think it is reasonable that some of the revenue is returned to fund further development of the MySQL database.

1.4.4.4 MySQL AB Partnership Logos

MySQL partnership logos may only be used by companies and persons having a written partnership agreement with MySQL AB. Partnerships include certification as a MySQL trainer or consultant. Please see section 1.3.1.5 Partnering.

1.4.4.5 Using the word MySQL in Printed Text or Presentations

MySQL AB welcomes references to the MySQL database, but note that the word MySQL is a trademark of MySQL AB. Because of this, you should append the trademark symbol (TM) to the first or most prominent use of the word MySQL in a text and where appropriate, state that MySQL is a trademark of MySQL AB. Please refer to our trademark policy at http://www.mysql.com/company/trademark.html for details.

1.4.4.6 Using the word MySQL in Company and Product Names

Use of the word MySQL in product or company names or in Internet domain names is not allowed without written permission from MySQL AB.

1.5 MySQL 4.x In A Nutshell

Long promised by MySQL AB and long awaited by our users, MySQL Server 4.0 is now available in beta version for download from http://www.mysql.com/ and our mirrors.

Main new features of MySQL Server 4.0 are geared toward our existing business and community users, enhancing the MySQL database software as the solution for mission-critical, heavy-load database systems. Other new features target the users of embedded databases.

1.5.1 Stepwise Rollout

MySQL is starting from 4.0.6 been labelled gamma, which means that 4.0.x has been available more than 2 months (first in alpha and then in beta) without any found serious hard to fix bugs and should now be ready for production use.

We will drop the gamma prefix when MySQL 4.0 has been out for more than a month without any serious bugs.

Further new features are being added in MySQL 4.1, which is now available from our bk source tree, and is targeted for alpha release in first quarter of 2003. See section 2.3.4 Installing from the Development Source Tree.

1.5.2 Ready for Immediate Use

All binary releases pass our extensive test suite without any errors on any of the platforms we test on. MySQL 4.0 has been tested on by a large number of users and is in production used by several big sites.

1.5.3 Embedded MySQL

libmysqld makes MySQL Server suitable for a vastly expanded realm of applications. Using the embedded MySQL server library, one can embed MySQL Server into various applications and electronics devices, where the end user has no knowledge of there actually being an underlying database. Embedded MySQL Server is ideal for use behind the scenes in Internet appliances, public kiosks, turnkey hardware/software combination units, high performance Internet servers, self-contained databases distributed on CD-ROM, etc.

Many users of libmysqld will benefit from the MySQL Dual Licensing. For those not wishing to be bound by the GPL, the software is also made available under a commercial license. The embedded MySQL library uses the same interface as the normal client library, so it is convenient and easy to use. See section 8.4.9 libmysqld, the Embedded MySQL Server Library.

1.5.4 Other Features Available From MySQL 4.0

1.5.5 Future MySQL 4.x Features

For the upcoming MySQL Server 4.x releases, expect the following features now still under development:

1.5.6 MySQL 4.1, The Following Development Release

MySQL Server 4.0 lays the foundation for the new features of MySQL Server 4.1 and onward, such as nested subqueries (4.1), stored procedures (5.0), and foreign key integrity rules for MyISAM tables (5.0), which form the top of the wish list for many of our customers.

After those additions, critics of the MySQL Database Server have to be more imaginative than ever in pointing out deficiencies in the MySQL Database Management System. For long already known for its stability, speed, and ease of use, MySQL Server will then match the requirement checklist of very demanding buyers.

1.6 MySQL Information Sources

1.6.1 MySQL Mailing Lists

This section introduces you to the MySQL mailing lists, and gives some guidelines as to how to use them. By subscribing to a mailing list, you will receive as e-mail messages all other postings on the list, and you will be able to send in your own questions and answers.

1.6.1.1 The MySQL Mailing Lists

To subscribe to the main MySQL mailing list, send a message to the electronic mail address mysql-subscribe@lists.mysql.com.

To unsubscribe from the main MySQL mailing list, send a message to the electronic mail address mysql-unsubscribe@lists.mysql.com.

Only the address to which you send your messages is significant. The subject line and the body of the message are ignored.

If your reply address is not valid, you can specify your address explicitly, by adding a hyphen to the subscribe or unsubscribe command word, followed by your address with the `@' character in your address replaced by a `='. For example, to subscribe your_name@host.domain, send a message to mysql-subscribe-your_name=host.domain@lists.mysql.com.

Mail to mysql-subscribe@lists.mysql.com or mysql-unsubscribe@lists.mysql.com is handled automatically by the ezmlm mailing list processor. Information about ezmlm is available at the ezmlm web site (http://www.ezmlm.org/).

To post a message to the list itself, send your message to mysql@lists.mysql.com. However, please do not send mail about subscribing or unsubscribing to mysql@lists.mysql.com because any mail sent to that address is distributed automatically to thousands of other users.

Your local site may have many subscribers to mysql@lists.mysql.com. If so, it may have a local mailing list, so messages sent from lists.mysql.com to your site are propagated to the local list. In such cases, please contact your system administrator to be added to or dropped from the local MySQL list.

If you wish to have traffic for a mailing list go to a separate mailbox in your mail program, set up a filter based on the message headers. You can use either the List-ID: or Delivered-To: headers to identify list messages.

The following MySQL mailing lists exist:

announce-subscribe@lists.mysql.com announce
This is for announcement of new versions of MySQL and related programs. This is a low-volume list all MySQL users should subscribe to.
mysql-subscribe@lists.mysql.com mysql
The main list for general MySQL discussion. Please note that some topics are better discussed on the more-specialised lists. If you post to the wrong list, you may not get an answer!
mysql-digest-subscribe@lists.mysql.com mysql-digest
The mysql list in digest form. That means you get all individual messages, sent as one large mail message once a day.
bugs-subscribe@lists.mysql.com bugs
On this list you should only post a full, repeatable bug report using the mysqlbug script (if you are running on Windows, you should include a description of the operating system and the MySQL version). Preferably, you should test the problem using the latest stable or development version of MySQL Server before posting! Anyone should be able to repeat the bug by just using mysql test < script on the included test case. All bugs posted on this list will be corrected or documented in the next MySQL release! If only small code changes are needed, we will also post a patch that fixes the problem.
bugs-digest-subscribe@lists.mysql.com bugs-digest
The bugs list in digest form.
internals-subscribe@lists.mysql.com internals
A list for people who work on the MySQL code. On this list one can also discuss MySQL development and post patches.
internals-digest-subscribe@lists.mysql.com internals-digest
A digest version of the internals list.
java-subscribe@lists.mysql.com java
Discussion about the MySQL server and Java. Mostly about the JDBC drivers including MySQL Connector/J.
java-digest-subscribe@lists.mysql.com java-digest
A digest version of the java list.
win32-subscribe@lists.mysql.com win32
All things concerning the MySQL software on Microsoft operating systems such as Windows 9x/Me/NT/2000/XP.
win32-digest-subscribe@lists.mysql.com win32-digest
A digest version of the win32 list.
myodbc-subscribe@lists.mysql.com myodbc
All things about connecting to the MySQL server with ODBC.
myodbc-digest-subscribe@lists.mysql.com myodbc-digest
A digest version of the myodbc list.
mysqlcc-subscribe@lists.mysql.com mysqlcc
All things about the MySQL Control Center graphical client.
mysqlcc-digest-subscribe@lists.mysql.com mysqlcc-digest
A digest version of the mysqlcc list.
plusplus-subscribe@lists.mysql.com plusplus
All things concerning programming with the C++ API to MySQL.
plusplus-digest-subscribe@lists.mysql.com plusplus-digest
A digest version of the plusplus list.
msql-mysql-modules-subscribe@lists.mysql.com msql-mysql-modules
A list about the Perl support for MySQL with msql-mysql-modules.
msql-mysql-modules-digest-subscribe@lists.mysql.com msql-mysql-modules-digest
A digest version of the msql-mysql-modules list.

You subscribe or unsubscribe to all lists in the same way as described previously. In your subscribe or unsubscribe message, just put the appropriate mailing list name rather than mysql. For example, to subscribe to or unsubscribe from the myodbc list, send a message to myodbc-subscribe@lists.mysql.com or myodbc-unsubscribe@lists.mysql.com.

If you can't get an answer for your questions from the mailing list, one option is to pay for support from MySQL AB, which will put you in direct contact with MySQL developers. See section 1.4.1 Support Offered by MySQL AB.

The following table shows some MySQL mailing in languages other than English. Note that these are not operated by MySQL AB, so we can't guarantee the quality on these.

mysql-france-subscribe@yahoogroups.com A French mailing list
list@tinc.net A Korean mailing list
E-mail subscribe mysql your@e-mail.address to this list.
mysql-de-request@lists.4t2.com A German mailing list
E-mail subscribe mysql-de your@e-mail.address to this list. You can find information about this mailing list at http://www.4t2.com/mysql/.
mysql-br-request@listas.linkway.com.br A Portugese mailing list
E-mail subscribe mysql-br your@e-mail.address to this list.
mysql-alta@elistas.net A Spanish mailing list
E-mail subscribe mysql your@e-mail.address to this list.

1.6.1.2 Asking Questions or Reporting Bugs

Before posting a bug report or question, please do the following:

If you can't find an answer in the manual or the archives, check with your local MySQL expert. If you still can't find an answer to your question, go ahead and read the next section about how to send mail to mysql@lists.mysql.com.

1.6.1.3 How to Report Bugs or Problems

Writing a good bug report takes patience, but doing it right the first time saves time for us and for you. A good bug report containing a full test case for the bug will make it very likely that we will fix it in the next release. This section will help you write your report correctly so that you don't waste your time doing things that may not help us much or at all.

We encourage everyone to use the mysqlbug script to generate a bug report (or a report about any problem), if possible. mysqlbug can be found in the `scripts' directory in the source distribution, or for a binary distribution, in the `bin' directory under your MySQL installation directory. If you are unable to use mysqlbug, you should still include all the necessary information listed in this section.

The mysqlbug script helps you generate a report by determining much of the following information automatically, but if something important is missing, please include it with your message! Please read this section carefully and make sure that all the information described here is included in your report.

The normal place to report bugs and problems is mysql@lists.mysql.com. If you can make a test case that clearly demonstrates the bug, you should post it to the bugs@lists.mysql.com list. Note that on this list you should only post a full, repeatable bug report using the mysqlbug script. If you are running on Windows, you should include a description of the operating system and the MySQL version. Preferably, you should test the problem using the latest stable or development version of MySQL Server before posting! Anyone should be able to repeat the bug by just using ``mysql test < script'' on the included test case or run the shell or Perl script that is included in the bug report. All bugs posted on the bugs list will be corrected or documented in the next MySQL release! If only small code changes are needed to correct this problem, we will also post a patch that fixes the problem.

If you have found a sensitive security bug in MySQL, you should send an e-mail to security@mysql.com.

Remember that it is possible to respond to a message containing too much information, but not to one containing too little. Often people omit facts because they think they know the cause of a problem and assume that some details don't matter. A good principle is: if you are in doubt about stating something, state it! It is a thousand times faster and less troublesome to write a couple of lines more in your report than to be forced to ask again and wait for the answer because you didn't include enough information the first time.

The most common errors are that people don't indicate the version number of the MySQL distribution they are using, or don't indicate what platform they have the MySQL server installed on (including the platform version number). This is highly relevant information, and in 99 cases out of 100 the bug report is useless without it! Very often we get questions like, ``Why doesn't this work for me?'' Then we find that the feature requested wasn't implemented in that MySQL version, or that a bug described in a report has been fixed already in newer MySQL versions. Sometimes the error is platform-dependent; in such cases, it is next to impossible to fix anything without knowing the operating system and the version number of the platform.

Remember also to provide information about your compiler, if it is related to the problem. Often people find bugs in compilers and think the problem is MySQL-related. Most compilers are under development all the time and become better version by version. To determine whether your problem depends on your compiler, we need to know what compiler is used. Note that every compiling problem should be regarded as a bug report and reported accordingly.

It is most helpful when a good description of the problem is included in the bug report. That is, a good example of all the things you did that led to the problem and the problem itself exactly described. The best reports are those that include a full example showing how to reproduce the bug or problem. See section E.1.6 Making a Test Case When You Experience Table Corruption.

If a program produces an error message, it is very important to include the message in your report! If we try to search for something from the archives using programs, it is better that the error message reported exactly matches the one that the program produces. (Even the case should be observed!) You should never try to remember what the error message was; instead, copy and paste the entire message into your report!

If you have a problem with MyODBC, you should try to generate a MyODBC trace file. See section 8.3.7 Reporting Problems with MyODBC.

Please remember that many of the people who will read your report will do so using an 80-column display. When generating reports or examples using the mysql command-line tool, you should therefore use the --vertical option (or the \G statement terminator) for output that would exceed the available width for such a display (for example, with the EXPLAIN SELECT statement; see the example later in this section).

Please include the following information in your report:

If you are a support customer, please cross-post the bug report to mysql-support@mysql.com for higher-priority treatment, as well as to the appropriate mailing list to see if someone else has experienced (and perhaps solved) the problem.

For information on reporting bugs in MyODBC, see section 8.3.4 How to Report Problems with MyODBC.

For solutions to some common problems, see section A Problems and Common Errors.

When answers are sent to you individually and not to the mailing list, it is considered good etiquette to summarise the answers and send the summary to the mailing list so that others may have the benefit of responses you received that helped you solve your problem!

1.6.1.4 Guidelines for Answering Questions on the Mailing List

If you consider your answer to have broad interest, you may want to post it to the mailing list instead of replying directly to the individual who asked. Try to make your answer general enough that people other than the original poster may benefit from it. When you post to the list, please make sure that your answer is not a duplication of a previous answer.

Try to summarise the essential part of the question in your reply; don't feel obliged to quote the entire original message.

Please don't post mail messages from your browser with HTML mode turned on! Many users don't read mail with a browser!

1.6.2 MySQL Community Support on IRC (Internet Relay Chat)

In addition to the various MySQL mailing lists, you can find experienced community people on IRC (Internet Relay Chat). These are the best networks/channels currently known to us:

If you are looking for IRC client software to connect to an IRC network, take a peek at X-Chat (http://www.xchat.org/). X-Chat is available for Unix as well as for Windows platforms.

1.7 How Standards-compatible Is MySQL?

This section describes how MySQL relates to the ANSI SQL standards. MySQL Server has many extensions to the ANSI SQL standards, and here you will find out what they are and how to use them. You will also find information about functionality missing from MySQL Server, and how to work around some differences.

Our goal is to not, without a very good reason, restrict MySQL Server usability for any usage. Even if we don't have the resources to do development for every possible use, we are always willing to help and offer suggestions to people who are trying to use MySQL Server in new territories.

One of our main goals with the product is to continue to work toward ANSI 99 compliancy, but without sacrificing speed or reliability. We are not afraid to add extensions to SQL or support for non-SQL features if this greatly increases the usability of MySQL Server for a big part of our users. (The new HANDLER interface in MySQL Server 4.0 is an example of this strategy. See section 6.4.2 HANDLER Syntax.)

We will continue to support transactional and non-transactional databases to satisfy both heavy web/logging usage and mission-critical 24/7 usage.

MySQL Server was designed from the start to work with medium size databases (10-100 million rows, or about 100 MB per table) on small computer systems. We will continue to extend MySQL Server to work even better with terabyte-size databases, as well as to make it possible to compile a reduced MySQL version that is more suitable for hand-held devices and embedded usage. The compact design of the MySQL server makes both of these directions possible without any conflicts in the source tree.

We are currently not targeting realtime support or clustered databases (even if you can already do a lot of things with our replication services).

We don't believe that one should have native XML support in the database, but will instead add the XML support our users request from us on the client side. We think it's better to keep the main server code as ``lean and clean'' as possible and instead develop libraries to deal with the complexity on the client side. This is part of the strategy mentioned previously of not sacrificing speed or reliability in the server.

1.7.1 What Standards Does MySQL Follow?

Entry-level SQL92. ODBC levels 0-3.51.

We are aiming toward supporting the full ANSI SQL99 standard, but without concessions to speed and quality of the code.

1.7.2 Running MySQL in ANSI Mode

If you start mysqld with the --ansi option, the following behaviour of MySQL Server changes:

This is the same as using --sql-mode=REAL_AS_FLOAT,PIPES_AS_CONCAT,ANSI_QUOTES, IGNORE_SPACE,SERIALIZE,ONLY_FULL_GROUP_BY.

1.7.3 MySQL Extensions to ANSI SQL92

MySQL Server includes some extensions that you probably will not find in other SQL databases. Be warned that if you use them, your code will not be portable to other SQL servers. In some cases, you can write code that includes MySQL extensions, but is still portable, by using comments of the form /*! ... */. In this case, MySQL Server will parse and execute the code within the comment as it would any other MySQL statement, but other SQL servers will ignore the extensions. For example:

SELECT /*! STRAIGHT_JOIN */ col_name FROM table1,table2 WHERE ...

If you add a version number after the '!', the syntax will be executed only if the MySQL version is equal to or newer than the used version number:

CREATE /*!32302 TEMPORARY */ TABLE t (a int);

This means that if you have Version 3.23.02 or newer, MySQL Server will use the TEMPORARY keyword.

The following is a list of MySQL extensions:

1.7.4 MySQL Differences Compared to ANSI SQL92

We try to make MySQL Server follow the ANSI SQL standard and the ODBC SQL standard, but in some cases MySQL Server does things differently:

For a prioritised list indicating when new extensions will be added to MySQL Server, you should consult the online MySQL TODO list at http://www.mysql.com/doc/en/TODO.html. That is the latest version of the TODO list in this manual. See section 1.8 MySQL and The Future (The TODO).

1.7.4.1 SubSELECTs

MySQL Server until version 4.0 only supports nested queries of the form INSERT ... SELECT ... and REPLACE ... SELECT .... You can, however, use the function IN() in other contexts. Subqueries have been implemented in the 4.1 development tree.

Meanwhile, you can often rewrite the query without a subquery:

SELECT * FROM table1 WHERE id IN (SELECT id FROM table2);

This can be rewritten as:

SELECT table1.* FROM table1,table2 WHERE table1.id=table2.id;

The queries:

SELECT * FROM table1 WHERE id NOT IN (SELECT id FROM table2);
SELECT * FROM table1 WHERE NOT EXISTS (SELECT id FROM table2
                                       WHERE table1.id=table2.id);

Can be rewritten as:

SELECT table1.* FROM table1 LEFT JOIN table2 ON table1.id=table2.id
                                       WHERE table2.id IS NULL;

For more complicated subqueries you can often create temporary tables to hold the subquery. In some cases, however, this option will not work. The most frequently encountered of these cases arises with DELETE statements, for which standard SQL does not support joins (except in subqueries). For this situation there are two options available until subqueries are supported by MySQL Server.

The first option is to use a procedural programming language (such as Perl or PHP) to submit a SELECT query to obtain the primary keys for the records to be deleted, and then use these values to construct the DELETE statement (DELETE FROM ... WHERE ... IN (key1, key2, ...)).

The second option is to use interactive SQL to construct a set of DELETE statements automatically, using the MySQL extension CONCAT() (in lieu of the standard || operator). For example:

SELECT CONCAT('DELETE FROM tab1 WHERE pkid = ', "'", tab1.pkid, "'", ';')
  FROM tab1, tab2
 WHERE tab1.col1 = tab2.col2;

You can place this query in a script file and redirect input from it to the mysql command-line interpreter, piping its output back to a second instance of the interpreter:

shell> mysql --skip-column-names mydb < myscript.sql | mysql mydb

MySQL Server 4.0 supports multi-table deletes that can be used to efficiently delete rows based on information from one table or even from many tables at the same time.

1.7.4.2 SELECT INTO TABLE

MySQL Server doesn't yet support the Oracle SQL extension: SELECT ... INTO TABLE .... MySQL Server supports instead the ANSI SQL syntax INSERT INTO ... SELECT ..., which is basically the same thing. See section 6.4.3.1 INSERT ... SELECT Syntax.

INSERT INTO tblTemp2 (fldID) SELECT tblTemp1.fldOrder_ID
       FROM tblTemp1 WHERE tblTemp1.fldOrder_ID > 100;

Alternatively, you can use SELECT INTO OUTFILE... or CREATE TABLE ... SELECT.

1.7.4.3 Transactions and Atomic Operations

MySQL Server supports transactions with the InnoDB and BDB Transactional table handlers. See section 7 MySQL Table Types. InnoDB provides ACID compliancy.

However, the non-transactional table types in MySQL Server such as MyISAM follow another paradigm for data integrity called ``Atomic Operations.'' Atomic operations often offer equal or even better integrity with much better performance. With MySQL Server supporting both paradigms, the user is able to decide if he needs the speed of atomic operations or if he need to use transactional features in his applications. This choice can be made on a per-table basis.

How does one use the features of MySQL Server to maintain rigorous integrity and how do these features compare with the transactional paradigm?

  1. In the transactional paradigm, if your applications are written in a way that is dependent on the calling of ROLLBACK instead of COMMIT in critical situations, transactions are more convenient. Transactions also ensure that unfinished updates or corrupting activities are not committed to the database; the server is given the opportunity to do an automatic rollback and your database is saved. MySQL Server, in almost all cases, allows you to resolve potential problems by including simple checks before updates and by running simple scripts that check the databases for inconsistencies and automatically repair or warn if such an inconsistency occurs. Note that just by using the MySQL log or even adding one extra log, one can normally fix tables perfectly with no data integrity loss.
  2. More often than not, fatal transactional updates can be rewritten to be atomic. Generally speaking, all integrity problems that transactions solve can be done with LOCK TABLES or atomic updates, ensuring that you never will get an automatic abort from the database, which is a common problem with transactional databases.
  3. Even a transactional system can lose data if the server goes down. The difference between different systems lies in just how small the time-lap is where they could lose data. No system is 100% secure, only ``secure enough.'' Even Oracle, reputed to be the safest of transactional databases, is reported to sometimes lose data in such situations. To be safe with MySQL Server, whether using transactional tables or not, you only need to have backups and have the update logging turned on. With this you can recover from any situation that you could with any other transactional database. It is, of course, always good to have backups, independent of which database you use.

The transactional paradigm has its benefits and its drawbacks. Many users and application developers depend on the ease with which they can code around problems where an abort appears to be, or is necessary. However, even if you are new to the atomic operations paradigm, or more familiar with transactions, do consider the speed benefit that non-transactional tables can offer on the order of three to five times the speed of the fastest and most optimally tuned transactional tables.

In situations where integrity is of highest importance, MySQL Server offers transaction-level or better reliability and integrity even for non-transactional tables. If you lock tables with LOCK TABLES, all updates will stall until any integrity checks are made. If you only obtain a read lock (as opposed to a write lock), reads and inserts are still allowed to happen. The new inserted records will not be seen by any of the clients that have a read lock until they release their read locks. With INSERT DELAYED you can queue inserts into a local queue, until the locks are released, without having the client wait for the insert to complete. See section 6.4.4 INSERT DELAYED Syntax.

``Atomic,'' in the sense that we mean it, is nothing magical. It only means that you can be sure that while each specific update is running, no other user can interfere with it, and there will never be an automatic rollback (which can happen with transactional tables if you are not very careful). MySQL Server also guarantees that there will not be any dirty reads.

Following are some techniques for working with non-transactional tables:

1.7.4.4 Stored Procedures and Triggers

A stored procedure is a set of SQL commands that can be compiled and stored in the server. Once this has been done, clients don't need to keep re-issuing the entire query but can refer to the stored procedure. This provides better performance because the query has to be parsed only once, and less information needs to be sent between the server and the client. You can also raise the conceptual level by having libraries of functions in the server.

A trigger is a stored procedure that is invoked when a particular event occurs. For example, you can install a stored procedure that is triggered each time a record is deleted from a transaction table and that automatically deletes the corresponding customer from a customer table when all his transactions are deleted.

The planned update language will be able to handle stored procedures. Our aim is to have stored procedures implemented in MySQL Server around version 5.0. We are also looking at triggers.

1.7.4.5 Foreign Keys

Note that foreign keys in SQL are not used to join tables, but are used mostly for checking referential integrity (foreign key constraints). If you want to get results from multiple tables from a SELECT statement, you do this by joining tables:

SELECT * FROM table1,table2 WHERE table1.id = table2.id;

See section 6.4.1.1 JOIN Syntax. See section 3.5.6 Using Foreign Keys.

In MySQL Server 3.23.44 and up, InnoDB tables support checking of foreign key constraints. See section 7.5 InnoDB Tables. For other table types, MySQL Server does parse the FOREIGN KEY syntax in CREATE TABLE commands, but without further action being taken.

The FOREIGN KEY syntax without ON DELETE ... is mostly used for documentation purposes. Some ODBC applications may use this to produce automatic WHERE clauses, but this is usually easy to override. FOREIGN KEY is sometimes used as a constraint check, but this check is unnecessary in practice if rows are inserted into the tables in the right order.

In MySQL Server, you can work around the problem of ON DELETE ... not being implemented by adding the appropriate DELETE statement to an application when you delete records from a table that has a foreign key. In practice this is as quick (in some cases quicker) and much more portable than using foreign keys.

In MySQL Server 4.0 you can use multi-table delete to delete rows from many tables with one command. See section 6.4.6 DELETE Syntax.

In the near future we will extend the FOREIGN KEY implementation so that the information will be saved in the table specification file and may be retrieved by mysqldump and ODBC. At a later stage we will implement the foreign key constraints for applications that can't easily be coded to avoid them.

Do keep in mind that foreign keys are often misused, which can cause severe problems. Even when used properly, it is not a magic solution for the referential integrity problem, although it does make things easier in some cases.

Some advantages of foreign key enforcement:

Disadvantages:

1.7.4.6 Views

It is planned to implement views in MySQL Server around version 5.0.

Views are mostly useful for letting users access a set of relations as one table (in read-only mode). Many SQL databases don't allow one to update any rows in a view, but you have to do the updates in the separate tables.

As MySQL Server is mostly used in applications and on web systems where the application writer has full control on the database usage, most of our users haven't regarded views to be very important. (At least no one has been interested enough in this to be prepared to finance the implementation of views.)

One doesn't need views in MySQL Server to restrict access to columns, as MySQL Server has a very sophisticated privilege system. See section 4.2 General Security Issues and the MySQL Access Privilege System.

1.7.4.7 `--' as the Start of a Comment

Some other SQL databases use `--' to start comments. MySQL Server has `#' as the start comment character. You can also use the C comment style /* this is a comment */ with MySQL Server. See section 6.1.6 Comment Syntax.

MySQL Server Version 3.23.3 and above support the `--' comment style, provided the comment is followed by a space. This is because this comment style has caused many problems with automatically generated SQL queries that have used something like the following code, where we automatically insert the value of the payment for !payment!:

UPDATE tbl_name SET credit=credit-!payment!

Think about what happens if the value of payment is negative. Because 1--1 is legal in SQL, the consequences of allowing comments to start with `--' are terrible.

Using our implementation of this method of commenting in MySQL Server Version 3.23.3 and up, 1-- This is a comment is actually safe.

Another safe feature is that the mysql command-line client removes all lines that start with `--'.

The following information is relevant only if you are running a MySQL version earlier than 3.23.3:

If you have a SQL program in a text file that contains `--' comments you should use:

shell> replace " --" " #" < text-file-with-funny-comments.sql \
         | mysql database

instead of the usual:

shell> mysql database < text-file-with-funny-comments.sql

You can also edit the command file ``in place'' to change the `--' comments to `#' comments:

shell> replace " --" " #" -- text-file-with-funny-comments.sql

Change them back with this command:

shell> replace " #" " --" -- text-file-with-funny-comments.sql

1.7.5 Known Errors and Design Deficiencies in MySQL

1.7.5.1 Errors in 3.23 fixed in later MySQL version

The following known errors/bugs are not fixed in MySQL 3.23 because fixing them would involves changing a lot of code which could introduce other even worse bugs. The bugs are also classified as 'not fatal' or 'bearable'.

1.7.5.2 Open bugs / Design Deficiencies in MySQL

The following problems are known and have a high priority to get fixed:

The following problems are known and will be fixed in due time:

The following are known bugs in earlier versions of MySQL:

For platform-specific bugs, see the sections about compiling and porting.

1.8 MySQL and The Future (The TODO)

This section lists the features that we plan to implement in MySQL Server.

Everything in this list is approximately in the order it will be done. If you want to affect the priority order, please register a license or support us and tell us what you want to have done more quickly. See section 1.4 MySQL Support and Licensing.

The plan is that we in the future will support the full ANSI SQL99 standard, but with a lot of useful extensions. The challenge is to do this without sacrificing the speed or compromising the code.

1.8.1 Things That Should be in 4.0

All done. We now only do bug fixes for MySQL 4.0. See section D.3 Changes in release 4.0.x (Gamma). Development has shifted to 4.1 & 5.0

1.8.2 Things That Should be in 4.1

The following features are planned for inclusion into MySQL 4.1. For a list what is already done in MySQL 4.1, see See section D.2 Changes in release 4.1.x (Alpha).

1.8.3 Things That Should be in 5.0

The following features are planned for inclusion into MySQL 5.0. Note that because we have many developers that are working on different projects, there will also be many additional features. There is also a small chance that some of these features will be added to MySQL 4.1. For a list what is already done in MySQL 4.1, see See section D.2 Changes in release 4.1.x (Alpha).

1.8.4 Things That Must be Done in the Near Future

1.8.5 Things That Have to be Done Sometime

Time is given according to amount of work, not real time.

1.8.6 Things We Don't Plan To Do

1.9 How MySQL Compares to Other Databases

Our users have successfully run their own benchmarks against a number of Open Source and traditional database servers. We are aware of tests against Oracle server, DB/2 server, Microsoft SQL Server, and other commercial products. Due to legal reasons we are restricted from publishing some of those benchmarks in our reference manual.

This section includes a comparison with mSQL for historical reasons and with PostgreSQL as it is also an Open Source database. If you have benchmark results that we can publish, please contact us at benchmarks@mysql.com.

For comparative lists of all supported functions and types as well as measured operational limits of many different database systems, see the crash-me web page at http://www.mysql.com/information/crash-me.php.

1.9.1 How MySQL Compares to mSQL

Performance
For a true comparison of speed, consult the growing MySQL benchmark suite. See section 5.1.4 The MySQL Benchmark Suite. Because there is no thread creation overhead, a small parser, few features, and simple security, mSQL should be quicker at: Because these operations are so simple, it is hard to be better at them when you have a higher startup overhead. After the connection is established, MySQL Server should perform much better. On the other hand, MySQL Server is much faster than mSQL (and most other SQL implementations) on the following:
SQL Features
Disk Space Efficiency
That is, how small can you make your tables? MySQL Server has very precise types, so you can create tables that take very little space. An example of a useful MySQL datatype is the MEDIUMINT that is 3 bytes long. If you have 100 million records, saving even 1 byte per record is very important. mSQL2 has a more limited set of column types, so it is more difficult to get small tables.
Stability
This is harder to judge objectively. For a discussion of MySQL Server stability, see section 1.2.3 How Stable Is MySQL?. We have no experience with mSQL stability, so we cannot say anything about that.
Price
Another important issue is the license. MySQL Server has a more flexible license than mSQL, and is also less expensive than mSQL. Whichever product you choose to use, remember to at least consider paying for a license or e-mail support.
Perl Interfaces
MySQL Server has basically the same interfaces to Perl as mSQL with some added features.
JDBC (Java)
MySQL Server currently has a lot of different JDBC drivers: The recommended driver is the mm driver. The Resin driver may also be good (at least the benchmarks look good), but we haven't received that much information about this yet. We know that mSQL has a JDBC driver, but we have too little experience with it to compare.
Rate of Development
MySQL Server has a small core team of developers, but we are quite used to coding C and C++ very rapidly. Because threads, functions, GROUP BY, and so on are still not implemented in mSQL, it has a lot of catching up to do. To get some perspective on this, you can view the mSQL `HISTORY' file for the last year and compare it with the News section of the MySQL Reference Manual (see section D MySQL Change History). It should be pretty obvious which one has developed most rapidly.
Utility Programs
Both mSQL and MySQL Server have many interesting third-party tools. Because it is very easy to port upward (from mSQL to MySQL Server), almost all the interesting applications that are available for mSQL are also available for MySQL Server. MySQL Server comes with a simple msql2mysql program that fixes differences in spelling between mSQL and MySQL Server for the most-used C API functions. For example, it changes instances of msqlConnect() to mysql_connect(). Converting a client program from mSQL to MySQL Server usually requires only minor effort.

1.9.1.1 How to Convert mSQL Tools for MySQL

According to our experience, it doesn't take long to convert tools such as msql-tcl and msqljava that use the mSQL C API so that they work with the MySQL C API.

The conversion procedure is:

  1. Run the shell script msql2mysql on the source. This requires the replace program, which is distributed with MySQL Server.
  2. Compile.
  3. Fix all compiler errors.

Differences between the mSQL C API and the MySQL C API are:

1.9.1.2 How mSQL and MySQL Client/Server Communications Protocols Differ

There are enough differences that it is impossible (or at least not easy) to support both.

The most significant ways in which the MySQL protocol differs from the mSQL protocol are listed here:

1.9.1.3 How mSQL 2.0 SQL Syntax Differs from MySQL

Column types

MySQL Server
Has the following additional types (among others; see section 6.5.3 CREATE TABLE Syntax):
MySQL Server also supports the following additional type attributes:
mSQL2
mSQL column types correspond to the MySQL types shown in the following table:
mSQL type Corresponding MySQL type
CHAR(len) CHAR(len)
TEXT(len) TEXT(len). len is the maximal length. And LIKE works.
INT INT. With many more options!
REAL REAL. Or FLOAT. Both 4- and 8-byte versions are available.
UINT INT UNSIGNED
DATE DATE. Uses ANSI SQL format rather than mSQL's own format.
TIME TIME
MONEY DECIMAL(12,2). A fixed-point value with two decimals.

Index Creation

MySQL Server
Indexes may be specified at table creation time with the CREATE TABLE statement.
mSQL
Indexes must be created after the table has been created, with separate CREATE INDEX statements.

To Insert a Unique Identifier into a Table

MySQL Server
Use AUTO_INCREMENT as a column type specifier. See section 8.4.3.130 mysql_insert_id().
mSQL
Create a SEQUENCE on a table and select the _seq column.

To Obtain a Unique Identifier for a Row

MySQL Server
Add a PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE key to the table and use this. New in Version 3.23.11: If the PRIMARY or UNIQUE key consists of only one column and this is of type integer, one can also refer to it as _rowid.
mSQL
Use the _rowid column. Observe that _rowid may change over time depending on many factors.

To Get the Time a Column Was Last Modified

MySQL Server
Add a TIMESTAMP column to the table. This column is automatically set to the current date and time for INSERT or UPDATE statements if you don't give the column a value or if you give it a NULL value.
mSQL
Use the _timestamp column.

NULL Value Comparisons

MySQL Server
MySQL Server follows ANSI SQL, and a comparison with NULL is always NULL.
mSQL
In mSQL, NULL = NULL is TRUE. You must change =NULL to IS NULL and <>NULL to IS NOT NULL when porting old code from mSQL to MySQL Server.

String Comparisons

MySQL Server
Normally, string comparisons are performed in case-independent fashion with the sort order determined by the current character set (ISO-8859-1 Latin1 by default). If you don't like this, declare your columns with the BINARY attribute, which causes comparisons to be done according to the ASCII order used on the MySQL server host.
mSQL
All string comparisons are performed in case-sensitive fashion with sorting in ASCII order.

Case-insensitive Searching

MySQL Server
LIKE is a case-insensitive or case-sensitive operator, depending on the columns involved. If possible, MySQL uses indexes if the LIKE argument doesn't start with a wildcard character.
mSQL
Use CLIKE.

Handling of Trailing Spaces

MySQL Server
Strips all spaces at the end of CHAR and VARCHAR columns. Use a TEXT column if this behaviour is not desired.
mSQL
Retains trailing space.

WHERE Clauses

MySQL Server
MySQL correctly prioritises everything (AND is evaluated before OR). To get mSQL behaviour in MySQL Server, use parentheses (as shown in an example later in this section).
mSQL
Evaluates everything from left to right. This means that some logical calculations with more than three arguments cannot be expressed in any way. It also means you must change some queries when you upgrade to MySQL Server. You do this easily by adding parentheses. Suppose you have the following mSQL query:
mysql> SELECT * FROM table WHERE a=1 AND b=2 OR a=3 AND b=4;
To make MySQL Server evaluate this the way that mSQL would, you must add parentheses:
mysql> SELECT * FROM table WHERE (a=1 AND (b=2 OR (a=3 AND (b=4))));

Access Control

MySQL Server
Has tables to store grant (permission) options per user, host, and database. See section 4.2.6 How the Privilege System Works.
mSQL
Has a file `mSQL.acl' in which you can grant read/write privileges for users.

1.9.2 How MySQL Compares to PostgreSQL

When reading the following, please note that both products are continually evolving. We at MySQL AB and the PostgreSQL developers are both working on making our respective databases as good as possible, so we are both a serious alternative to any commercial database.

The following comparison is made by us at MySQL AB. We have tried to be as accurate and fair as possible, but although we know MySQL Server thoroughly, we don't have a full knowledge of all PostgreSQL features, so we may have got some things wrong. We will, however, correct these when they come to our attention.

We would first like to note that PostgreSQL and MySQL Server are both widely used products, but with different design goals, even if we are both striving toward ANSI SQL compliancy. This means that for some applications MySQL Server is more suited, while for others PostgreSQL is more suited. When choosing which database to use, you should first check if the database's feature set satisfies your application. If you need raw speed, MySQL Server is probably your best choice. If you need some of the extra features that only PostgreSQL can offer, you should use PostgreSQL.

1.9.2.1 MySQL and PostgreSQL development strategies

When adding things to MySQL Server we take pride to do an optimal, definite solution. The code should be so good that we shouldn't have any need to change it in the foreseeable future. We also do not like to sacrifice speed for features but instead will do our utmost to find a solution that will give maximal throughput. This means that development will take a little longer, but the end result will be well worth this. This kind of development is only possible because all server code are checked by one of a few (currently two) persons before it's included in the MySQL server.

We at MySQL AB believe in frequent releases to be able to push out new features quickly to our users. Because of this we do a new small release about every three weeks, and a major branch every year. All releases are thoroughly tested with our testing tools on a lot of different platforms.

PostgreSQL is based on a kernel with lots of contributors. In this setup it makes sense to prioritise adding a lot of new features, instead of implementing them optimally, because one can always optimise things later if there arises a need for this.

Another big difference between MySQL Server and PostgreSQL is that nearly all of the code in the MySQL server is coded by developers that are employed by MySQL AB and are still working on the server code. The exceptions are the transaction engines and the regexp library.

This is in sharp contrast to the PostgreSQL code, the majority of which is coded by a big group of people with different backgrounds. It was only recently that the PostgreSQL developers announced that their current developer group had finally had time to take a look at all the code in the current PostgreSQL release.

Both of the aforementioned development methods have their own merits and drawbacks. We here at MySQL AB think, of course, that our model is better because our model gives better code consistency, more optimal and reusable code, and in our opinion, fewer bugs. Because we are the authors of the MySQL server code, we are better able to coordinate new features and releases.

1.9.2.2 Featurewise Comparison of MySQL and PostgreSQL

On the crash-me page (http://www.mysql.com/information/crash-me.php) you can find a list of those database constructs and limits that one can detect automatically with a program. Note, however, that a lot of the numerical limits may be changed with startup options for their respective databases. This web page is, however, extremely useful when you want to ensure that your applications work with many different databases or when you want to convert your application from one database to another.

MySQL Server offers the following advantages over PostgreSQL:

Drawbacks with MySQL Server compared to PostgreSQL:

PostgreSQL currently offers the following advantages over MySQL Server:

Note that because we know the MySQL road map, we have included in the following table the version when MySQL Server should support this feature. Unfortunately we couldn't do this for previous comparisons, because we don't know the PostgreSQL roadmap.

Feature MySQL version
Subqueries 4.1
Foreign keys 5.0 (3.23 with InnoDB)
Views 5.0
Stored procedures 5.0
Triggers 5.0
Unions 4.0
Full join 4.1
Constraints 4.1 or 5.0
Cursors 4.1 or 5.0
R-trees 4.1 (for MyISAM tables)
Inherited tables Not planned
Extensible type system Not planned

Other reasons someone may consider using PostgreSQL:

Drawbacks with PostgreSQL compared to MySQL Server:

For a complete list of drawbacks, you should also examine the first table in this section.

1.9.2.3 Benchmarking MySQL and PostgreSQL

The only Open Source benchmark that we know of that can be used to benchmark MySQL Server and PostgreSQL (and other databases) is our own. It can be found at http://www.mysql.com/information/benchmarks.html.

We have many times asked the PostgreSQL developers and some PostgreSQL users to help us extend this benchmark to make it the definitive benchmark for databases, but unfortunately we haven't gotten any feedback for this.

We, the MySQL developers, have, because of this, spent a lot of hours to get maximum performance from PostgreSQL for the benchmarks, but because we don't know PostgreSQL intimately, we are sure that there are things that we have missed. We have on the benchmark page documented exactly how we did run the benchmark so that it should be easy for anyone to repeat and verify our results.

The benchmarks are usually run with and without the --fast option. When run with --fast we are trying to use every trick the server can do to get the code to execute as fast as possible. The idea is that the normal run should show how the server would work in a default setup and the --fast run shows how the server would do if the application developer would use extensions in the server to make his application run faster.

When running with PostgreSQL and --fast we do a VACUUM after every major table UPDATE and DROP TABLE to make the database in perfect shape for the following SELECTs. The time for VACUUM is measured separately.

When running with PostgreSQL 7.1.1 we could, however, not run with --fast because during the INSERT test, the postmaster (the PostgreSQL daemon) died and the database was so corrupted that it was impossible to restart postmaster. After this happened twice, we decided to postpone the --fast test until the next PostgreSQL release. The details about the machine we run the benchmark on can be found on the benchmark page.

Before going to the other benchmarks we know of, we would like to give some background on benchmarks.

It's very easy to write a test that shows any database to be the best database in the world, by just restricting the test to something the database is very good at and not testing anything that the database is not good at. If one, after doing this, summarises the result as a single figure, things are even easier.

This would be like us measuring the speed of MySQL Server compared to PostgreSQL by looking at the summary time of the MySQL benchmarks on our web page. Based on this MySQL Server would be more than 40 times faster than PostgreSQL, something that is, of course, not true. We could make things even worse by just taking the test where PostgreSQL performs worst and claim that MySQL Server is more than 2000 times faster than PostgreSQL.

The case is that MySQL does a lot of optimisations that PostgreSQL doesn't do. This is, of course, also true the other way around. An SQL optimiser is a very complex thing, and a company could spend years just making the optimiser faster and faster.

When looking at the benchmark results you should look for things that you do in your application and just use these results to decide which database would be best suited for your application. The benchmark results also show things a particular database is not good at and should give you a notion about things to avoid and what you may have to do in other ways.

We know of two benchmark tests that claim that PostgreSQL performs better than MySQL Server. These both where multi-user tests, a test that we here at MySQL AB haven't had time to write and include in the benchmark suite, mainly because it's a big task to do this in a manner that is fair to all databases.

One is the benchmark paid for by Great Bridge, the company that for 16 months attempted to build a business based on PostgreSQL but now has ceased operations. This is probably the worst benchmark we have ever seen anyone conduct. This was not only tuned to only test what PostgreSQL is absolutely best at, but it was also totally unfair to every other database involved in the test.

Note: We know that even some of the main PostgreSQL developers did not like the way Great Bridge conducted the benchmark, so we don't blame the PostgreSQL team for the way the benchmark was done.

This benchmark has been condemned in a lot of postings and newsgroups, so here we will just briefly repeat some things that were wrong with it.

Tim Perdue, a long-time PostgreSQL fan and a reluctant MySQL user, published a comparison on PHPbuilder (http://www.phpbuilder.com/columns/tim20001112.php3).

When we became aware of the comparison, we phoned Tim Perdue about this because there were a lot of strange things in his results. For example, he claimed that MySQL Server had a problem with five users in his tests, when we know that there are users with similar machines as his that are using MySQL Server with 2000 simultaneous connections doing 400 queries per second. (In this case the limit was the web bandwidth, not the database.)

It sounded like he was using a Linux kernel that either had some problems with many threads, such as kernels before 2.4, which had a problem with many threads on multi-CPU machines. We have documented in this manual how to fix this and Tim should be aware of this problem.

The other possible problem could have been an old glibc library and that Tim didn't use a MySQL binary from our site, which is linked with a corrected glibc library, but had compiled a version of his own. In any of these cases, the symptom would have been exactly what Tim had measured.

We asked Tim if we could get access to his data so that we could repeat the benchmark and if he could check the MySQL version on the machine to find out what was wrong and he promised to come back to us about this. He has not done that yet.

Because of this we can't put any trust in this benchmark either. :(

Over time things also change and the preceding benchmarks are not that relevant anymore. MySQL Server now has a couple of different storage engines with different speed/concurrency tradeoffs. See section 7 MySQL Table Types. It would be interesting to see how the above tests would run with the different transactional table types in MySQL Server. PostgreSQL has, of course, also got new features since the test was made. As these tests are not publicly available there is no way for us to know how the database would perform in the same tests today.

Conclusion:

The only benchmarks that exist today that anyone can download and run against MySQL Server and PostgreSQL are the MySQL benchmarks. We here at MySQL AB believe that Open Source databases should be tested with Open Source tools! This is the only way to ensure that no one does tests that nobody can reproduce and use this to claim that one database is better than another. Without knowing all the facts it's impossible to answer the claims of the tester.

The thing we find strange is that every test we have seen about PostgreSQL, that is impossible to reproduce, claims that PostgreSQL is better in most cases while our tests, which anyone can reproduce, clearly show otherwise. With this we don't want to say that PostgreSQL isn't good at many things (it is!) or that it isn't faster than MySQL Server under certain conditions. We would just like to see a fair test where PostgreSQL performs very well, so that we could get some friendly competition going!

For more information about our benchmark suite, see section 5.1.4 The MySQL Benchmark Suite.

We are working on an even better benchmark suite, including multi-user tests, and a better documentation of what the individual tests really do and how to add more tests to the suite.

2 MySQL Installation

This chapter describes how to obtain and install MySQL:

2.1 Quick Standard Installation of MySQL

2.1.1 Installing MySQL on Linux

The recommended way to install MySQL on Linux is by using the RPM packages. The MySQL RPMs are currently being built on a SuSE Linux 7.3 system but should work on most versions of Linux that support rpm and use glibc.

If you have problems with an RPM file, for example, if you receive the error ``Sorry, the host 'xxxx' could not be looked up''@-see section 2.6.1.1 Linux Notes for Binary Distributions.

The RPM files you may want to use are:

To see all files in an RPM package, run:

shell> rpm -qpl MySQL-VERSION.i386.rpm

To perform a standard minimal installation, run:

shell> rpm -i MySQL-server-VERSION.i386.rpm MySQL-client-VERSION.i386.rpm

To install just the client package, run:

shell> rpm -i MySQL-client-VERSION.i386.rpm

The RPM places data in `/var/lib/mysql'. The RPM also creates the appropriate entries in `/etc/init.d/' to start the server automatically at boot time. (This means that if you have performed a previous installation, you may want to make a copy of your previously installed MySQL startup file if you made any changes to it, so you don't lose your changes.)

If you want to install the MySQL RPM on older Linux distributions that do not support init scripts in `/etc/init.d' (directly or via a symlink), you should create a symbolic link pointing to the old location before installing the RPM:

shell> cd /etc ; ln -s rc.d/init.d .

However, all current major Linux distributions should already support this new directory layout as it is required for LSB (Linux Standard Base) compliance.

After installing the RPM file(s), the mysqld daemon should be up and running and you should now be able to start using MySQL. See section 2.4 Post-installation Setup and Testing.

If something goes wrong, you can find more information in the binary installation chapter. See section 2.2.10 Installing a MySQL Binary Distribution.

2.1.2 Installing MySQL on Windows

The MySQL server for Windows is available in two distribution types:

  1. The binary distribution contains a setup program which installs everything you need so that you can start the server immediately.
  2. The source distribution contains all the code and support files for building the executables using the VC++ 6.0 compiler. See section 2.3.7 Windows Source Distribution.

Generally speaking, you should use the binary distribution.

You will need the following:

2.1.2.1 Installing the Binaries

  1. If you are working on an NT/2000/XP server, logon as a user with administrator privileges.
  2. If you are doing an upgrade of an earlier MySQL installation, it is necessary to stop the server. If you are running the server as a service, use:
    C:\> NET STOP MySQL
    
    Otherwise, use:
    C:\mysql\bin> mysqladmin -u root shutdown
    
  3. On NT/2000/XP machines, if you want to change the server executable (e.g., -max or -nt), it is also necessary to remove the service:
    C:\mysql\bin> mysqld-max-nt --remove
    
  4. Unzip the distribution file to a temporary directory.
  5. Run the `setup.exe' file to begin the installation process. If you want to install into another directory than the default `c:\mysql', use the Browse button to specify your preferred directory.
  6. Finish the install process.

2.1.2.2 Preparing the Windows MySQL Environment

Starting with MySQL 3.23.38, the Windows distribution includes both the normal and the MySQL-Max server binaries. Here is a list of the different MySQL servers you can use:

Binary Description
mysqld Compiled with full debugging and automatic memory allocation checking, symbolic links, InnoDB, and BDB tables.
mysqld-opt Optimised binary with no support for transactional tables.
mysqld-nt Optimised binary for NT/2000/XP with support for named pipes. You can run this version on Windows 9x/Me, but in this case no named pipes are created and you must have TCP/IP installed.
mysqld-max Optimised binary with support for symbolic links, InnoDB and BDB tables.
mysqld-max-nt Like mysqld-max, but compiled with support for named pipes.

Starting from 3.23.50, named pipes are only enabled if one starts mysqld with --enable-named-pipe.

All of the preceding binaries are optimised for the Pentium Pro processor but should work on any Intel processor >= i386.

You will need to use an option file to specify your MySQL configuration under the following circumstances:

Normally you can use the WinMySQLAdmin tool to edit the option file my.ini. In this case you don't have to worry about the following section.

There are two option files with the same function: `my.cnf' and `my.ini'. However, to avoid confusion, it's best if you use only of one them. Both files are plain text. The `my.cnf' file, if used, should be created in the root directory of the C drive. The `my.ini' file, if used, should be created in the Windows system directory. (This directory is typically something like `C:\WINDOWS' or `C:\WINNT'. You can determine its exact location from the value of the windir environment variable.) MySQL looks first for the my.ini file, then for the `my.cnf' file.

If your PC uses a boot loader where the C drive isn't the boot drive, your only option is to use the `my.ini' file. Also note that if you use the WinMySQLAdmin tool, it uses only the `my.ini' file. The `\mysql\bin' directory contains a help file with instructions for using this tool.

Using notepad.exe, create the option file and edit the [mysqld] section to specify values for the basedir and datadir parameters:

[mysqld]
# set basedir to installation path, e.g., c:/mysql
basedir=the_install_path
# set datadir to location of data directory,
# e.g., c:/mysql/data or d:/mydata/data
datadir=the_data_path

Note that Windows pathnames should be specified in option files using forward slashes rather than backslashes. If you do use backslashes, you must double them.

If you would like to use a data directory different from the default of `c:\mysql\data', you must copy the entire contents of the `c:\mysql\data' directory to the new location.

If you want to use the InnoDB transactional tables, you need to manually create two new directories to hold the InnoDB data and log files@-e.g., `c:\ibdata' and `c:\iblogs'. You will also need to add some extra lines to the option file. See section 7.5.2 InnoDB Startup Options.

If you don't want to use InnoDB tables, add the skip-innodb option to the option file.

Now you are ready to test starting the server.

2.1.2.3 Starting the Server for the First Time

Testing from a DOS command prompt is the best thing to do because the server displays status messages that appear in the DOS window. If something is wrong with your configuration, these messages will make it easier for you to identify and fix any problems.

Make sure you are in the directory where the server is located, then enter this command:

C:\mysql\bin> mysqld-max --standalone

You should see the following messages as the server starts up:

InnoDB: The first specified datafile c:\ibdata\ibdata1 did not exist:
InnoDB: a new database to be created!
InnoDB: Setting file c:\ibdata\ibdata1 size to 209715200
InnoDB: Database physically writes the file full: wait...
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile0 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile0 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile1 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile1 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile2 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile2 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Doublewrite buffer not found: creating new
InnoDB: Doublewrite buffer created
InnoDB: creating foreign key constraint system tables
InnoDB: foreign key constraint system tables created
011024 10:58:25  InnoDB: Started

For further information about running MySQL on Windows, see section 2.6.2 Windows Notes.

2.1.3 Installing MySQL on Mac OS X

Beginning with MySQL 4.0.11, you can install MySQL on Mac OS X 10.2 ("Jaguar") using a Mac OS X PKG binary package instead of the binary tarball distribution. Please note that older versions of Mac OS X (e.g. 10.1.x) are not supported by this package!

The package is located inside a disk image (.dmg) file, that you first need to mount by double-clicking its icon in the Finder. It should then mount the image and display its contents.

NOTE: Before proceeding with the installation, please make sure that no other MySQL server is running!

Please shut down all running MySQL instances before continuing by either using the MySQL Manager Application (on Mac OS X Server) or via mysqladmin shutdown on the command line.

To actually install the MySQL PKG, double click on the package icon. This will launch the Mac OS Package Installer, which will guide you through the installation of MySQL.

The Mac OS X PKG of MySQL will install itself into `/usr/local/mysql-<version>' and will also install a symbolic link `/usr/local/mysql', pointing to the new location. If a directory named `/usr/local/mysql' already exists, it will be renamed to `/usr/local/mysql.bak' first. Additionally, it will install the mysql grant tables by executing mysql_install_db after the installation.

The installation layout is similar to the one of the binary distribution, all MySQL binaries are located in directory `/usr/local/mysql/bin'. The MySQL socket will be put into `/etc/mysql.sock' by default. See section 2.2.7 Installation Layouts.

It requires a user account named mysql (which should exist by default on Mac OS X 10.2 and up).

If you are running Mac OS X Server, you already have a version of MySQL installed:

This manual section covers the installation of the official MySQL Mac OS X PKG only. Make sure to read Apple's help about installing MySQL (Run the "Help View" application, select "Mac OS X Server" help, and do a search for "MySQL" and read the item entitled "Installing MySQL").

Especially note, that the pre-installed version of MySQL on Mac OS X Server is being started with the command safe_mysqld instead of mysqld_safe!

If you previously used Marc Liyanage's MySQL packages for Mac OS X from http://www.entropy.ch, you can simply follow the update instructions for packages using the binary installation layout as given on his pages.

If you are upgrading from Marc's version or from the Mac OS X Server version of MySQL to the official MySQL PKG, you also need to convert the existing MySQL privilege tables. See section 2.5.2 Upgrading From Version 3.23 to Version 4.0.

After the installation, you can start up MySQL by running the following commands in a terminal window. Please note that you need to have administrator privileges to perform this task!

shell> cd /usr/local/mysql
shell> sudo ./bin/mysqld_safe
(Enter your password)
(Press CTRL+Z)
shell> bg
(Press CTRL+D to exit the shell)

You should now be able to connect to the MySQL server, e.g. by running `/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql'.

To enable the automatic startup of MySQL on bootup, you can download Marc Liyanage's MySQL StartupItem from the following location:

http://www2.entropy.ch/download/mysql-startupitem.pkg.tar.gz

We plan to add a StartupItem to the official MySQL PKG in the near future.

Please note that installing a new MySQL PKG does not remove the directory of an older installation - unfortunately the Mac OS X Installer does not yet offer the functionality required to properly upgrade previously installed packages. After you have copied over the MySQL database files from the previous version and have successfully started the new version, you should consider removing the old installation files to save up disk space. Additionally, you should also remove older versions of the Package Receipt directories located in `/Library/Receipts/mysql-<version>.pkg'.

2.2 General Installation Issues

2.2.1 How to Get MySQL

Check the MySQL homepage (http://www.mysql.com/) for information about the current version and for downloading instructions.

Our main mirror is located at http://mirrors.sunsite.dk/mysql/.

For a complete upto-date list of MySQL web/download mirrors, see http://www.mysql.com/downloads/mirrors.html. There you will also find information about becoming a MySQL mirror site and how to report a bad or out-of-date mirror.

2.2.2 Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG

After you have downloaded the MySQL package that suits your needs and before you attempt to install it, you should make sure it is intact and has not been tampered with.

MySQL AB offers two means of integrity checking: MD5 checksums and cryptographic signatures using GnuPG, the GNU Privacy Guard.

2.2.3 Verifying the MD5 Checksum

After you have downloaded the package, you should check, if the MD5 checksum matches the one provided on the MySQL download pages. Each package has an individual checksum, that you can verify with the following command:

shell> md5sum <package>

Note, that not all operating systems support the md5sum command - on some it is simply called md5, others do not ship it at all. On Linux, it is part of the GNU Text Utilities package, which is available for a wide range of platforms. You can download the source code from http://www.gnu.org/software/textutils/ as well. If you have OpenSSL installed, you can also use the command openssl md5 <package> instead. A DOS/Windows implementation of the md5 command is available from http://www.fourmilab.ch/md5/.

Example:

shell> md5sum mysql-standard-4.0.10-gamma-pc-linux-i686.tar.gz
155836a7ed8c93aee6728a827a6aa153
                mysql-standard-4.0.10-gamma-pc-linux-i686.tar.gz

You should check, if the resulting checksum matches the one printed on the download page right below the respective package.

Most mirror sites also offer a file named `MD5SUMS', which also includes the MD5 checksums for all files included in the `Downloads' directory. Please note however that it's very easy to modify this file and it's not a very reliable method! If in doubt, you should consult different mirror sites and compare the results.

2.2.4 Signature Checking Using GnuPG

A more reliable method of verifying the integrity of a package is using cryptographic signatures. MySQL AB uses the GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG), an Open Source alternative to the very well-known Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) by Phil Zimmermann. See http://www.gnupg.org/ and http://www.openpgp.org/ for more information about OpenPGP/GnuPG and how to obtain and install GnuPG on your system. Most Linux distributions already ship with GnuPG installed by default.

Beginning with MySQL 4.0.10 (February 2003), MySQL AB has started signing their downloadable packages with GnuPG. Cryptographic signatures are a much more reliable method of verifying the integrity and authenticity of a file.

To verify the signature for a specific package, you first need to obtain a copy of MySQL AB's public GPG build key build@mysql.com. You can either cut and paste it directly from here, or obtain it from http://www.keyserver.net/.

Key ID:
pub  1024D/5072E1F5 2003-02-03
     MySQL Package signing key (www.mysql.com) <build@mysql.com>
Fingerprint: A4A9 4068 76FC BD3C 4567  70C8 8C71 8D3B 5072 E1F5

Public Key (ASCII-armored):

-----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
Version: GnuPG v1.0.6 (GNU/Linux)
Comment: For info see http://www.gnupg.org

mQGiBD4+owwRBAC14GIfUfCyEDSIePvEW3SAFUdJBtoQHH/nJKZyQT7h9bPlUWC3
RODjQReyCITRrdwyrKUGku2FmeVGwn2u2WmDMNABLnpprWPkBdCk96+OmSLN9brZ
fw2vOUgCmYv2hW0hyDHuvYlQA/BThQoADgj8AW6/0Lo7V1W9/8VuHP0gQwCgvzV3
BqOxRznNCRCRxAuAuVztHRcEAJooQK1+iSiunZMYD1WufeXfshc57S/+yeJkegNW
hxwR9pRWVArNYJdDRT+rf2RUe3vpquKNQU/hnEIUHJRQqYHo8gTxvxXNQc7fJYLV
K2HtkrPbP72vwsEKMYhhr0eKCbtLGfls9krjJ6sBgACyP/Vb7hiPwxh6rDZ7ITnE
kYpXBACmWpP8NJTkamEnPCia2ZoOHODANwpUkP43I7jsDmgtobZX9qnrAXw+uNDI
QJEXM6FSbi0LLtZciNlYsafwAPEOMDKpMqAK6IyisNtPvaLd8lH0bPAnWqcyefep
rv0sxxqUEMcM3o7wwgfN83POkDasDbs3pjwPhxvhz6//62zQJ7Q7TXlTUUwgUGFj
a2FnZSBzaWduaW5nIGtleSAod3d3Lm15c3FsLmNvbSkgPGJ1aWxkQG15c3FsLmNv
bT6IXQQTEQIAHQUCPj6jDAUJCWYBgAULBwoDBAMVAwIDFgIBAheAAAoJEIxxjTtQ
cuH1cY4AnilUwTXn8MatQOiG0a/bPxrvK/gCAJ4oinSNZRYTnblChwFaazt7PF3q
zIhMBBMRAgAMBQI+PqPRBYMJZgC7AAoJEElQ4SqycpHyJOEAn1mxHijft00bKXvu
cSo/pECUmppiAJ41M9MRVj5VcdH/KN/KjRtW6tHFPYhMBBMRAgAMBQI+QoIDBYMJ
YiKJAAoJELb1zU3GuiQ/lpEAoIhpp6BozKI8p6eaabzF5MlJH58pAKCu/ROofK8J
Eg2aLos+5zEYrB/LsrkCDQQ+PqMdEAgA7+GJfxbMdY4wslPnjH9rF4N2qfWsEN/l
xaZoJYc3a6M02WCnHl6ahT2/tBK2w1QI4YFteR47gCvtgb6O1JHffOo2HfLmRDRi
Rjd1DTCHqeyX7CHhcghj/dNRlW2Z0l5QFEcmV9U0Vhp3aFfWC4Ujfs3LU+hkAWzE
7zaD5cH9J7yv/6xuZVw411x0h4UqsTcWMu0iM1BzELqX1DY7LwoPEb/O9Rkbf4fm
Le11EzIaCa4PqARXQZc4dhSinMt6K3X4BrRsKTfozBu74F47D8Ilbf5vSYHbuE5p
/1oIDznkg/p8kW+3FxuWrycciqFTcNz215yyX39LXFnlLzKUb/F5GwADBQf+Lwqq
a8CGrRfsOAJxim63CHfty5mUc5rUSnTslGYEIOCR1BeQauyPZbPDsDD9MZ1ZaSaf
anFvwFG6Llx9xkU7tzq+vKLoWkm4u5xf3vn55VjnSd1aQ9eQnUcXiL4cnBGoTbOW
I39EcyzgslzBdC++MPjcQTcA7p6JUVsP6oAB3FQWg54tuUo0Ec8bsM8b3Ev42Lmu
QT5NdKHGwHsXTPtl0klk4bQk4OajHsiy1BMahpT27jWjJlMiJc+IWJ0mghkKHt92
6s/ymfdf5HkdQ1cyvsz5tryVI3Fx78XeSYfQvuuwqp2H139pXGEkg0n6KdUOetdZ
Whe70YGNPw1yjWJT1IhMBBgRAgAMBQI+PqMdBQkJZgGAAAoJEIxxjTtQcuH17p4A
n3r1QpVC9yhnW2cSAjq+kr72GX0eAJ4295kl6NxYEuFApmr1+0uUq/SlsQ==
=YJkx
-----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----

You can import this key into your public GPG keyring by using gpg --import. See the GPG documentation for more info on how to work with public keys.

After you have downloaded and imported the public build key, now download your desired MySQL package and the corresponding signature, which is also available from the download page. The signature has the file name extension `.asc'. For example, the signature for `mysql-standard-4.0.10-gamma-pc-linux-i686.tar.gz' would be `mysql-standard-4.0.10-gamma-pc-linux-i686.tar.gz.asc'. Make sure that both files are stored in the same directory and then run the following command to verify the signature for this file:

shell> gpg --verify <package>.asc

Example:

shell> gpg --verify mysql-standard-4.0.10-gamma-pc-linux-i686.tar.gz.asc
gpg: Warning: using insecure memory!
gpg: Signature made Mon 03 Feb 2003 08:50:39 PM MET using DSA key ID 5072E1F5
gpg: Good signature from
     "MySQL Package signing key (www.mysql.com) <build@mysql.com>"

The "Good signature" message indicates that everything is all right.

For RPM packages, there is no separate signature - RPM packages actually have a built-in GPG signature and MD5 checksum. You can verify them by running the following command:

shell> rpm --checksig <package>.rpm

Example:

shell> rpm --checksig MySQL-server-4.0.10-0.i386.rpm
MySQL-server-4.0.10-0.i386.rpm: md5 gpg OK

Note: If you are using RPM 4.1 and it complains about (GPG) NOT OK (MISSING KEYS: GPG#5072e1f5) (even though you have imported it into your GPG public keyring), you need to import the key into the RPM keyring first. RPM 4.1 does not use your GPG keyring (and GPG itself) anymore, but rather maintains its own keyring (because it's a system wide application and the GPG public keyring is user-specific file). To import the MySQL public key into the RPM keyring, please use the following command:

shell> rpm --import <pubkey>

Example:

shell> rpm --import mysql_pubkey.asc

In case you notice that the MD5 checksum or GPG signatures do not match, first try to download the respective package one more time, maybe from another mirror site. If you repeatedly can not successfully verify the integrity of the package, please notify us about such incidents including the full package name and the download site you have been using at webmaster@mysql.com or build@mysql.com.

2.2.5 Operating Systems Supported by MySQL

We use GNU Autoconf, so it is possible to port MySQL to all modern systems with working Posix threads and a C++ compiler. (To compile only the client code, a C++ compiler is required but not threads.) We use and develop the software ourselves primarily on Sun Solaris (Versions 2.5 - 2.7) and SuSE Linux Version 7.x.

Note that for many operating systems, the native thread support works only in the latest versions. MySQL has been reported to compile successfully on the following operating system/thread package combinations:

Note that not all platforms are suited equally well for running MySQL. How well a certain platform is suited for a high-load mission-critical MySQL server is determined by the following factors:

Based on the preceding criteria, the best platforms for running MySQL at this point are x86 with SuSE Linux 7.1, 2.4 kernel, and ReiserFS (or any similar Linux distribution) and SPARC with Solaris 2.7 or 2.8. FreeBSD comes third, but we really hope it will join the top club once the thread library is improved. We also hope that at some point we will be able to include all other platforms on which MySQL compiles, runs okay, but not quite with the same level of stability and performance, into the top category. This will require some effort on our part in cooperation with the developers of the OS/library components MySQL depends upon. If you are interested in making one of those components better, are in a position to influence their development, and need more detailed instructions on what MySQL needs to run better, send an e-mail to internals@lists.mysql.com.

Please note that the preceding comparison is not to say that one OS is better or worse than the other in general. We are talking about choosing a particular OS for a dedicated purpose@-running MySQL, and compare platforms in that regard only. With this in mind, the result of this comparison would be different if we included more issues into it. And in some cases, the reason one OS is better than the other could simply be that we have put forth more effort into testing on and optimising for that particular platform. We are just stating our observations to help you decide on which platform to use MySQL on in your setup.

2.2.6 Which MySQL Version to Use

The first decision to make is whether you want to use the latest development release or the last stable release:

The second decision to make is whether you want to use a source distribution or a binary distribution. In most cases you should probably use a binary distribution, if one exists for your platform, as this generally will be easier to install than a source distribution.

In the following cases you probably will be better off with a source installation:

The MySQL naming scheme uses release numbers that consist of three numbers and a suffix. For example, a release name like mysql-3.21.17-beta is interpreted like this:

All versions of MySQL are run through our standard tests and benchmarks to ensure that they are relatively safe to use. Because the standard tests are extended over time to check for all previously found bugs, the test suite keeps getting better.

Note that all releases have been tested at least with:

An internal test suite
This is part of a production system for a customer. It has many tables with hundreds of megabytes of data.
The MySQL benchmark suite
This runs a range of common queries. It is also a test to see whether the latest batch of optimisations actually made the code faster. See section 5.1.4 The MySQL Benchmark Suite.
The crash-me test
This tries to determine what features the database supports and what its capabilities and limitations are. See section 5.1.4 The MySQL Benchmark Suite.

Another test is that we use the newest MySQL version in our internal production environment, on at least one machine. We have more than 100 gigabytes of data to work with.

2.2.7 Installation Layouts

This section describes the default layout of the directories created by installing binary and source distributions.

A binary distribution is installed by unpacking it at the installation location you choose (typically `/usr/local/mysql') and creates the following directories in that location:

Directory Contents of directory
`bin' Client programs and the mysqld server
`data' Log files, databases
`include' Include (header) files
`lib' Libraries
`scripts' mysql_install_db
`share/mysql' Error message files
`sql-bench' Benchmarks

A source distribution is installed after you configure and compile it. By default, the installation step installs files under `/usr/local', in the following subdirectories:

Directory Contents of directory
`bin' Client programs and scripts
`include/mysql' Include (header) files
`info' Documentation in Info format
`lib/mysql' Libraries
`libexec' The mysqld server
`share/mysql' Error message files
`sql-bench' Benchmarks and crash-me test
`var' Databases and log files

Within an installation directory, the layout of a source installation differs from that of a binary installation in the following ways:

You can create your own binary installation from a compiled source distribution by executing the script `scripts/make_binary_distribution'.

2.2.8 How and When Updates Are Released

MySQL is evolving quite rapidly here at MySQL AB and we want to share this with other MySQL users. We try to make a release when we have very useful features that others seem to have a need for.

We also try to help out users who request features that are easy to implement. We take note of what our licensed users want to have, and we especially take note of what our extended e-mail supported customers want and try to help them out.

No one has to download a new release. The News section will tell you if the new release has something you really want. See section D MySQL Change History.

We use the following policy when updating MySQL:

The current stable release is Version 3.23; we have already moved active development to Version 4.0. Bugs will still be fixed in the stable version. We don't believe in a complete freeze, as this also leaves out bug fixes and things that ``must be done.'' ``Somewhat frozen'' means that we may add small things that ``almost surely will not affect anything that's already working.''

MySQL uses a slightly different naming scheme from most other products. In general it's relatively safe to use any version that has been out for a couple of weeks without being replaced with a new version. See section 2.2.6 Which MySQL Version to Use.

2.2.9 MySQL Binaries Compiled by MySQL AB

As a service, we at MySQL AB provide a set of binary distributions of MySQL that are compiled at our site or at sites where customers kindly have given us access to their machines.

These distributions are generated using the script Build-tools/Do-compile which compiles the source code and creates the binary tar.gz archive using scripts/make_binary_distribution These binaries are configured and built with the following compilers and options.

Binaries built on MySQL AB development systems:

Linux 2.4.xx i386 with gcc 2.95.3
CFLAGS="-O2 -mcpu=pentiumpro" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O2 -mcpu=pentiumpro -felide-constructors" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --enable-assembler --disable-shared --with-client-ldflags=-all-static --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static
Linux 2.4.xx ia64 with ecc (Intel C++ Itanium Compiler 7.0)
CC=ecc CFLAGS=-tpp1 CXX=ecc CXXFLAGS=-tpp1 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile
Linux 2.4.xx alpha with ccc (Compaq C V6.2-505 / Compaq C++ V6.3-006)
CC=ccc CFLAGS="-fast -arch generic" CXX=cxx CXXFLAGS="-fast -arch generic -noexceptions -nortti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --with-mysqld-ldflags=-non_shared --with-client-ldflags=-non_shared --disable-shared
Linux 2.2.xx sparc with egcs 1.1.2
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --enable-assembler --disable-shared
Linux 2.4.xx s390 with gcc 2.95.3
CFLAGS="-O2" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O2 -felide-constructors" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared --with-client-ldflags=-all-static --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static
Sun Solaris 2.8 sparc with gcc 3.2
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --enable-assembler --with-named-z-libs=no --with-named-curses-libs=-lcurses --disable-shared
Sun Solaris 2.9 sparc with gcc 2.95.3
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --enable-assembler --with-named-curses-libs=-lcurses --disable-shared
Sun Solaris 2.9 sparc with cc-5.0 (Sun Forte 5.0)
CC=cc-5.0 CXX=CC ASFLAGS="-xarch=v9" CFLAGS="-Xa -xstrconst -mt -D_FORTEC_ -xarch=v9" CXXFLAGS="-noex -mt -D_FORTEC_ -xarch=v9" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --enable-assembler --with-named-z-libs=no --enable-thread-safe-client --disable-shared
IBM AIX 4.3.2 ppc with gcc 3.2.1
CFLAGS="-O2 -mcpu=powerpc -Wa,-many " CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O2 -mcpu=powerpc -Wa,-many -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --with-named-z-libs=no --disable-shared
IBM AIX 5.1.0 ppc with gcc 3.2.1
CFLAGS="-O2 -mcpu=powerpc -Wa,-many" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O2 -mcpu=powerpc -Wa,-many -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --with-server-suffix="-pro" --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --with-named-z-libs=no --disable-shared --with-innodb
HP-UX 10.20 pa-risc1.1 with gcc 3.1
CFLAGS="-DHPUX -I/opt/dce/include -O3 -fPIC" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-DHPUX -I/opt/dce /include -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti -O3 -fPIC" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --with-pthread --with-named-thread-libs=-ldce --with-lib-ccflags=-fPIC --disable-shared
HP-UX 11.11 pa-risc2.0 with aCC (HP ANSI C++ B3910B A.03.33)
CC=cc CXX=aCC CFLAGS=+DD64 CXXFLAGS=+DD64 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared
Apple Mac OS X 10.2 powerpc with gcc 3.1
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared
FreeBSD 4.7 i386 with gcc 2.95.4
CFLAGS=-DHAVE_BROKEN_REALPATH ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --enable-assembler --with-named-z-libs=not-used --disable-shared

The following binaries are built on third-party systems kindly provided to MySQL AB by other users. Please note that these are only provided as a courtesy. Since MySQL AB does not have full control over these systems, we can only provide limited support for the binaries built on these systems.

SCO Unix 3.2v5.0.6 i386 with gcc 2.95.3
CFLAGS="-O3 -mpentium" LDFLAGS=-static CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -mpentium -felide-constructors" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --with-named-z-libs=no --enable-thread-safe-client --disable-shared
Caldera Open Unix 8.0.0 i386 with CC 3.2
CC=cc CFLAGS="-O" CXX=CC ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --with-named-z-libs=no --enable-thread-safe-client --disable-shared
Compaq Tru64 OSF/1 V5.1 732 alpha with cc/cxx (Compaq C V6.3-029i / DIGITAL C++ V6.1-027)
CC="cc -pthread" CFLAGS="-O4 -ansi_alias -ansi_args -fast -inline speed -speculate all" CXX="cxx -pthread" CXXFLAGS="-O4 -ansi_alias -fast -inline speed -speculate all -noexceptions -nortti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --with-prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-named-thread-libs="-lpthread -lmach -lexc -lc" --disable-shared --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static
SGI Irix 6.5 IP32 with gcc 3.0.1
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --enable-local-infile --disable-shared

The following compile options have been used for binary packages MySQL AB used to provide in the past. These binaries are currently not being updated anymore, but the compile options are kept in here for reference purposes.

Linux 2.2.x with x686 with gcc 2.95.2
CFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -mpentiumpro -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static --disable-shared --with-extra-charsets=complex
SunOS 4.1.4 2 sun4c with gcc 2.7.2.1
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --disable-shared --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-assembler
SunOS 5.5.1 (and above) sun4u with egcs 1.0.3a or 2.90.27 or gcc 2.95.2 and newer
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-low-memory --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-assembler
SunOS 5.6 i86pc with gcc 2.8.1
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-low-memory --with-extra-charsets=complex
BSDI BSD/OS 3.1 i386 with gcc 2.7.2.1
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex
BSDI BSD/OS 2.1 i386 with gcc 2.7.2
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex
AIX 2 4 with gcc 2.7.2.2
CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-extra-charsets=complex

Anyone who has more optimal options for any of the preceding configurations listed can always mail them to the developer's mailing list at internals@lists.mysql.com.

RPM distributions prior to MySQL Version 3.22 are user-contributed. Beginning with Version 3.22, the RPMs are generated by us at MySQL AB.

If you want to compile a debug version of MySQL, you should add --with-debug or --with-debug=full to the preceding configure lines and remove any -fomit-frame-pointer options.

For the Windows distribution, please see section 2.1.2 Installing MySQL on Windows.

2.2.10 Installing a MySQL Binary Distribution

See also section 2.1.2.1 Installing the Binaries, section 2.1.1 Installing MySQL on Linux, and section 8.4.7 Building Client Programs.

You need the following tools to install a MySQL binary distribution:

An alternative installation method under Linux is to use RPM-based (RPM Package Manager) distributions. See section 2.1.1 Installing MySQL on Linux.

If you run into problems, please always use mysqlbug when posting questions to mysql@lists.mysql.com. Even if the problem isn't a bug, mysqlbug gathers system information that will help others solve your problem. By not using mysqlbug, you lessen the likelihood of getting a solution to your problem! You will find mysqlbug in the `bin' directory after you unpack the distribution. See section 1.6.1.3 How to Report Bugs or Problems.

The basic commands you must execute to install and use a MySQL binary distribution are:

shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -g mysql mysql
shell> cd /usr/local
shell> gunzip < /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz | tar xvf -
shell> ln -s full-path-to-mysql-VERSION-OS mysql
shell> cd mysql
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db
shell> chown -R root  .
shell> chown -R mysql data
shell> chgrp -R mysql .
shell> bin/safe_mysqld --user=mysql &
or
shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
if you are running MySQL 4.x

You can add new users using the bin/mysql_setpermission script if you install the DBI and Msql-Mysql-modules Perl modules.

A more detailed description follows.

To install a binary distribution, follow these steps, then proceed to section 2.4 Post-installation Setup and Testing, for post-installation setup and testing:

  1. Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the distribution, and move into it. In the following example, we unpack the distribution under `/usr/local' and create a directory `/usr/local/mysql' into which MySQL is installed. (The following instructions, therefore, assume you have permission to create files in `/usr/local'. If that directory is protected, you will need to perform the installation as root.)
  2. Obtain a distribution file from one of the sites listed in section 2.2.1 How to Get MySQL. MySQL binary distributions are provided as compressed tar archives and have names like `mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz', where VERSION is a number (for example, 3.21.15), and OS indicates the type of operating system for which the distribution is intended (for example, pc-linux-gnu-i586).
  3. If you see a binary distribution marked with the -max suffix, this means that the binary has support for transaction-safe tables and other features. See section 4.7.5 mysqld-max, An Extended mysqld Server. Note that all binaries are built from the same MySQL source distribution.
  4. Add a user and group for mysqld to run as:
    shell> groupadd mysql
    shell> useradd -g mysql mysql
    
    These commands add the mysql group and the mysql user. The syntax for useradd and groupadd may differ slightly on different versions of Unix. They may also be called adduser and addgroup. You may wish to call the user and group something else instead of mysql.
  5. Change into the intended installation directory:
    shell> cd /usr/local
    
  6. Unpack the distribution and create the installation directory:
    shell> gunzip < /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz | tar xvf -
    shell> ln -s full-path-to-mysql-VERSION-OS mysql
    
    The first command creates a directory named `mysql-VERSION-OS'. The second command makes a symbolic link to that directory. This lets you refer more easily to the installation directory as `/usr/local/mysql'.
  7. Change into the installation directory:
    shell> cd mysql
    
    You will find several files and subdirectories in the mysql directory. The most important for installation purposes are the `bin' and `scripts' subdirectories.
    `bin'
    This directory contains client programs and the server You should add the full pathname of this directory to your PATH environment variable so that your shell finds the MySQL programs properly. See section F Environment Variables.
    `scripts'
    This directory contains the mysql_install_db script used to initialise the mysql database containing the grant tables that store the server access permissions.
  8. If you would like to use mysqlaccess and have the MySQL distribution in some non-standard place, you must change the location where mysqlaccess expects to find the mysql client. Edit the `bin/mysqlaccess' script at approximately line 18. Search for a line that looks like this:
    $MYSQL     = '/usr/local/bin/mysql';    # path to mysql executable
    
    Change the path to reflect the location where mysql actually is stored on your system. If you do not do this, you will get a Broken pipe error when you run mysqlaccess.
  9. Create the MySQL grant tables (necessary only if you haven't installed MySQL before):
    shell> scripts/mysql_install_db
    
    Note that MySQL versions older than Version 3.22.10 started the MySQL server when you run mysql_install_db. This is no longer true!
  10. Change ownership of binaries to root and ownership of the data directory to the user that you will run mysqld as:
    shell> chown -R root  /usr/local/mysql/.
    shell> chown -R mysql /usr/local/mysql/data
    shell> chgrp -R mysql /usr/local/mysql/.
    
    The first command changes the owner attribute of the files to the root user, the second one changes the owner attribute of the data directory to the mysql user, and the third one changes the group attribute to the mysql group.
  11. If you want to install support for the Perl DBI/DBD interface, see section 2.7 Perl Installation Comments.
  12. If you would like MySQL to start automatically when you boot your machine, you can copy support-files/mysql.server to the location where your system has its startup files. More information can be found in the support-files/mysql.server script itself and in section 2.4.3 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically.

After everything has been unpacked and installed, you should initialise and test your distribution.

You can start the MySQL server with the following command:

shell> bin/safe_mysqld --user=mysql &

Now proceed to section 4.7.2 safe_mysqld, The Wrapper Around mysqld, and See section 2.4 Post-installation Setup and Testing.

2.3 Installing a MySQL Source Distribution

Before you proceed with the source installation, check first to see if our binary is available for your platform and if it will work for you. We put a lot of effort into making sure that our binaries are built with the best possible options.

You need the following tools to build and install MySQL from source:

If you are using a recent version of gcc, recent enough to understand the -fno-exceptions option, it is very important that you use it. Otherwise, you may compile a binary that crashes randomly. We also recommend that you use -felide-constructors and -fno-rtti along with -fno-exceptions. When in doubt, do the following:


CFLAGS="-O3" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions \
       -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler \
       --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static

On most systems this will give you a fast and stable binary.

If you run into problems, please always use mysqlbug when posting questions to mysql@lists.mysql.com. Even if the problem isn't a bug, mysqlbug gathers system information that will help others solve your problem. By not using mysqlbug, you lessen the likelihood of getting a solution to your problem! You will find mysqlbug in the `scripts' directory after you unpack the distribution. See section 1.6.1.3 How to Report Bugs or Problems.

2.3.1 Quick Installation Overview

The basic commands you must execute to install a MySQL source distribution are:

shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -g mysql mysql
shell> gunzip < mysql-VERSION.tar.gz | tar -xvf -
shell> cd mysql-VERSION
shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
shell> make
shell> make install
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db
shell> chown -R root  /usr/local/mysql
shell> chown -R mysql /usr/local/mysql/var
shell> chgrp -R mysql /usr/local/mysql
shell> cp support-files/my-medium.cnf /etc/my.cnf
shell> /usr/local/mysql/bin/safe_mysqld --user=mysql &
or
shell> /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
if you are running MySQL 4.x.

If you want to have support for InnoDB tables, you should edit the /etc/my.cnf file and remove the # character before the parameter that starts with innodb_.... See section 4.1.2 `my.cnf' Option Files, and section 7.5.2 InnoDB Startup Options.

If you start from a source RPM, do the following:

shell> rpm --rebuild --clean MySQL-VERSION.src.rpm

This will make a binary RPM that you can install.

You can add new users using the bin/mysql_setpermission script if you install the DBI and Msql-Mysql-modules Perl modules.

A more detailed description follows.

To install a source distribution, follow these steps, then proceed to section 2.4 Post-installation Setup and Testing, for post-installation initialisation and testing:

  1. Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the distribution, and move into it.
  2. Obtain a distribution file from one of the sites listed in section 2.2.1 How to Get MySQL.
  3. If you are interested in using Berkeley DB tables with MySQL, you will need to obtain a patched version of the Berkeley DB source code. Please read the chapter on Berkeley DB tables before proceeding. See section 7.6 BDB or BerkeleyDB Tables. MySQL source distributions are provided as compressed tar archives and have names like `mysql-VERSION.tar.gz', where VERSION is a number like 3.23.56.
  4. Add a user and group for mysqld to run as:
    shell> groupadd mysql
    shell> useradd -g mysql mysql
    
    These commands add the mysql group and the mysql user. The syntax for useradd and groupadd may differ slightly on different versions of Unix. They may also be called adduser and addgroup. You may wish to call the user and group something else instead of mysql.
  5. Unpack the distribution into the current directory:
    shell> gunzip < /path/to/mysql-VERSION.tar.gz | tar xvf -
    
    This command creates a directory named `mysql-VERSION'.
  6. Change into the top-level directory of the unpacked distribution:
    shell> cd mysql-VERSION
    
    Note that currently you must configure and build MySQL from this top-level directory. You cannot build it in a different directory.
  7. Configure the release and compile everything:
    shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
    shell> make
    
    When you run configure, you might want to specify some options. Run ./configure --help for a list of options. section 2.3.3 Typical configure Options, discusses some of the more useful options. If configure fails, and you are going to send mail to mysql@lists.mysql.com to ask for assistance, please include any lines from `config.log' that you think can help solve the problem. Also include the last couple of lines of output from configure if configure aborts. Post the bug report using the mysqlbug script. See section 1.6.1.3 How to Report Bugs or Problems. If the compile fails, see section 2.3.5 Problems Compiling MySQL?, for help with a number of common problems.
  8. Install everything:
    shell> make install
    
    You might need to run this command as root.
  9. Create the MySQL grant tables (necessary only if you haven't installed MySQL before):
    shell> scripts/mysql_install_db
    
    Note that MySQL versions older than Version 3.22.10 started the MySQL server when you run mysql_install_db. This is no longer true!
  10. Change ownership of binaries to root and ownership of the data directory to the user that you will run mysqld as:
    shell> chown -R root  /usr/local/mysql
    shell> chown -R mysql /usr/local/mysql/var
    shell> chgrp -R mysql /usr/local/mysql
    
    The first command changes the owner attribute of the files to the root user, the second one changes the owner attribute of the data directory to the mysql user, and the third one changes the group attribute to the mysql group.
  11. If you want to install support for the Perl DBI/DBD interface, see section 2.7 Perl Installation Comments.
  12. If you would like MySQL to start automatically when you boot your machine, you can copy support-files/mysql.server to the location where your system has its startup files. More information can be found in the support-files/mysql.server script itself and in section 2.4.3 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically.

After everything has been installed, you should initialise and test your distribution:

shell> /usr/local/mysql/bin/safe_mysqld --user=mysql &

If that command fails immediately with mysqld daemon ended, you can find some information in the file `mysql-data-directory/'hostname'.err'. The likely reason is that you already have another mysqld server running. See section 4.1.4 Running Multiple MySQL Servers on the Same Machine.

Now proceed to section 2.4 Post-installation Setup and Testing.

2.3.2 Applying Patches

Sometimes patches appear on the mailing list or are placed in the patches area of the MySQL web site (http://www.mysql.com/downloads/patches.html).

To apply a patch from the mailing list, save the message in which the patch appears in a file, change into the top-level directory of your MySQL source tree, and run these commands:

shell> patch -p1 < patch-file-name
shell> rm config.cache
shell> make clean

Patches from the FTP site are distributed as plain text files or as files compressed with gzip. Apply a plain patch as shown previously for mailing list patches. To apply a compressed patch, change into the top-level directory of your MySQL source tree and run these commands:

shell> gunzip < patch-file-name.gz | patch -p1
shell> rm config.cache
shell> make clean

After applying a patch, follow the instructions for a normal source install, beginning with the ./configure step. After running the make install step, restart your MySQL server.

You may need to bring down any currently running server before you run make install. (Use mysqladmin shutdown to do this.) Some systems do not allow you to install a new version of a program if it replaces the version that is currently executing.

2.3.3 Typical configure Options

The configure script gives you a great deal of control over how you configure your MySQL distribution. Typically you do this using options on the configure command-line. You can also affect configure using certain environment variables. See section F Environment Variables. For a list of options supported by configure, run this command:

shell> ./configure --help

Some of the more commonly-used configure options are described here:

2.3.4 Installing from the Development Source Tree

Caution: You should read this section only if you are interested in helping us test our new code. If you just want to get MySQL up and running on your system, you should use a standard release distribution (either a source or binary distribution will do).

To obtain our most recent development source tree, use these instructions:

  1. Download BitKeeper from http://www.bitmover.com/cgi-bin/download.cgi. You will need Bitkeeper 3.0 or newer to access our repository.
  2. Follow the instructions to install it.
  3. After BitKeeper is installed, first go to the directory you want to work from, and then use one of the following commands to clone the MySQL version branch of your choice: To clone the 3.23 branch, use this command:
    shell> bk clone bk://mysql.bkbits.net/mysql-3.23 mysql-3.23
    
    To clone the 4.0 branch, use this command:
    shell> bk clone bk://mysql.bkbits.net/mysql-4.0 mysql-4.0
    
    To clone the 4.1 branch, use this command:
    shell> bk clone bk://mysql.bkbits.net/mysql-4.1 mysql-4.1
    
    In the preceding examples the source tree will be set up in the `mysql-3.23/', `mysql-4.0/', or `mysql-4.1/' subdirectory of your current directory. If you are behind a firewall and can only initiate HTTP connections, you can also use BitKeeper via HTTP. If you are required to use a proxy server, simply set the environment variable http_proxy to point to your proxy:
    shell> export http_proxy="http://your.proxy.server:8080/"
    
    Now, simply replace the bk:// with http:// when doing a clone. Example:
    shell> bk clone http://mysql.bkbits.net/mysql-4.1 mysql-4.1
    
    The initial download of the source tree may take a while, depending on the speed of your connection - please be patient.
  4. You will need GNU make, autoconf 2.53 (or newer), automake 1.5, libtool 1.4, and m4 to run the next set of commands. Note that automake 1.7 or newer doesn't yet work. If you are using trying to configure MySQL 4.1 you will also need bison 1.75. Older versions of bison may report this error: sql_yacc.yy:#####: fatal error: maximum table size (32767) exceeded. Note: the maximum table size is not actually exceeded, the error is caused by bugs in these earlier bison versions. The typical command to do in a shell is:
    cd mysql-4.0
    bk -r get -Sq
    aclocal; autoheader; autoconf; automake
    (cd innobase ; aclocal; autoheader; autoconf; automake) # for InnoDB
    (cd bdb/dist ; sh s_all ) # for Berkeley DB
    ./configure  # Add your favorite options here
    make
    
    If you get some strange error during this stage, check that you really have libtool installed! A collection of our standard configure scripts is located in the `BUILD/' subdirectory. If you are lazy, you can use `BUILD/compile-pentium-debug'. To compile on a different architecture, modify the script by removing flags that are Pentium-specific.
  5. When the build is done, run make install. Be careful with this on a production machine; the command may overwrite your live release installation. If you have another installation of MySQL, we recommand that you run ./configure with different values for the prefix, with-tcp-port, and unix-socket-path options than those used for your production server.
  6. Play hard with your new installation and try to make the new features crash. Start by running make test. See section 9.1.2 MySQL Test Suite.
  7. If you have gotten to the make stage and the distribution does not compile, please report it to bugs@lists.mysql.com. If you have installed the latest versions of the required GNU tools, and they crash trying to process our configuration files, please report that also. However, if you execute aclocal and get a command not found error or a similar problem, do not report it. Instead, make sure all the necessary tools are installed and that your PATH variable is set correctly so that your shell can find them.
  8. After the initial bk clone operation to get the source tree, you should run bk pull periodically to get the updates.
  9. You can examine the change history for the tree with all the diffs by using bk sccstool. If you see some funny diffs or code that you have a question about, do not hesitate to send e-mail to internals@lists.mysql.com. Also, if you think you have a better idea on how to do something, send an e-mail to the same address with a patch. bk diffs will produce a patch for you after you have made changes to the source. If you do not have the time to code your idea, just send a description.
  10. BitKeeper has a nice help utility that you can access via bk helptool.
  11. Please note that any commits (bk ci or bk citool) will trigger the posting of a message with the changeset to our internals mailing list, as well as the usual openlogging.org submission with just the changeset comments. Generally, you wouldn't need to use commit (since the public tree will not allow bk push), but rather use the bk diffs method described previously.

You can also browse changesets, comments and sourcecode online by browsing to e.g. http://mysql.bkbits.net:8080/mysql-4.1 For MySQL 4.1.

The manual is in a separate tree which can be cloned with:

shell> bk clone bk://mysql.bkbits.net/mysqldoc mysqldoc

2.3.5 Problems Compiling MySQL?

All MySQL programs compile cleanly for us with no warnings on Solaris or Linux using gcc. On other systems, warnings may occur due to differences in system include files. See section 2.3.6 MIT-pthreads Notes for warnings that may occur when using MIT-pthreads. For other problems, check the following list.

The solution to many problems involves reconfiguring. If you do need to reconfigure, take note of the following:

To prevent old configuration information or object files from being used, run these commands before rerunning configure:

shell> rm config.cache
shell> make clean

Alternatively, you can run make distclean.

The following list describes some of the problems when compiling MySQL that have been found to occur most often:

2.3.6 MIT-pthreads Notes

This section describes some of the issues involved in using MIT-pthreads.

Note that on Linux you should not use MIT-pthreads but install LinuxThreads! See section 2.6.1 Linux Notes (All Linux Versions).

If your system does not provide native thread support, you will need to build MySQL using the MIT-pthreads package. This includes older FreeBSD systems, SunOS 4.x, Solaris 2.4 and earlier, and some others. See section 2.2.5 Operating Systems Supported by MySQL.

Note, that beginning with MySQL 4.0.2 MIT-pthreads are no longer part of the source distribution! If you require this package, you need to download it separately from http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Contrib/pthreads-1_60_beta6-mysql.tar.gz

After downloading, extract this source archive into the top level of the MySQL source directory. It will create a new subdirectory mit-pthreads.

2.3.7 Windows Source Distribution

You will need the following:

Building MySQL

  1. Create a work directory (e.g., workdir).
  2. Unpack the source distribution in the aforementioned directory.
  3. Start the VC++ 6.0 compiler.
  4. In the File menu, select Open Workspace.
  5. Open the `mysql.dsw' workspace you find on the work directory.
  6. From the Build menu, select the Set Active Configuration menu.
  7. Click over the screen selecting mysqld - Win32 Debug and click OK.
  8. Press F7 to begin the build of the debug server, libs, and some client applications.
  9. When the compilation finishes, copy the libs and the executables to a separate directory.
  10. Compile the release versions that you want, in the same way.
  11. Create the directory for the MySQL stuff: e.g., `c:\mysql'
  12. From the workdir directory copy for the c:\mysql directory the following directories:
  13. Create the directory `c:\mysql\bin' and copy all the servers and clients that you compiled previously.
  14. If you want, also create the `lib' directory and copy the libs that you compiled previously.
  15. Do a clean using Visual Studio.

Set up and start the server in the same way as for the binary Windows distribution. See section 2.1.2.2 Preparing the Windows MySQL Environment.

2.4 Post-installation Setup and Testing

Once you've installed MySQL (from either a binary or source distribution), you need to initialise the grant tables, start the server, and make sure that the server works okay. You may also wish to arrange for the server to be started and stopped automatically when your system starts up and shuts down.

Normally you install the grant tables and start the server like this for installation from a source distribution:

shell> ./scripts/mysql_install_db
shell> cd mysql_installation_directory
shell> ./bin/safe_mysqld --user=mysql &

For a binary distribution (not RPM or pkg packages), do this:

shell> cd mysql_installation_directory
shell> ./scripts/mysql_install_db
shell> ./bin/safe_mysqld --user=mysql &
or
shell> ./bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
if you are running MySQL 4.x.

This creates the mysql database which will hold all database privileges, the test database which you can use to test MySQL, and also privilege entries for the user that run mysql_install_db and a root user (without any passwords). This also starts the mysqld server.

mysql_install_db will not overwrite any old privilege tables, so it should be safe to run in any circumstances. If you don't want to have the test database you can remove it with mysqladmin -u root drop test.

Testing is most easily done from the top-level directory of the MySQL distribution. For a binary distribution, this is your installation directory (typically something like `/usr/local/mysql'). For a source distribution, this is the main directory of your MySQL source tree.

In the commands shown in this section and in the following subsections, BINDIR is the path to the location in which programs like mysqladmin and safe_mysqld are installed. For a binary distribution, this is the `bin' directory within the distribution. For a source distribution, BINDIR is probably `/usr/local/bin', unless you specified an installation directory other than `/usr/local' when you ran configure. EXECDIR is the location in which the mysqld server is installed. For a binary distribution, this is the same as BINDIR. For a source distribution, EXECDIR is probably `/usr/local/libexec'.

Testing is described in detail:

  1. If necessary, start the mysqld server and set up the initial MySQL grant tables containing the privileges that determine how users are allowed to connect to the server. This is normally done with the mysql_install_db script:
    shell> scripts/mysql_install_db
    
    Typically, mysql_install_db needs to be run only the first time you install MySQL. Therefore, if you are upgrading an existing installation, you can skip this step. (However, mysql_install_db is quite safe to use and will not update any tables that already exist, so if you are unsure of what to do, you can always run mysql_install_db.) mysql_install_db creates six tables (user, db, host, tables_priv, columns_priv, and func) in the mysql database. A description of the initial privileges is given in section 4.3.4 Setting Up the Initial MySQL Privileges. Briefly, these privileges allow the MySQL root user to do anything, and allow anybody to create or use databases with a name of test or starting with test_. If you don't set up the grant tables, the following error will appear in the log file when you start the server:
    mysqld: Can't find file: 'host.frm'
    
    This may also happen with a binary MySQL distribution if you don't start MySQL by executing exactly ./bin/safe_mysqld! See section 4.7.2 safe_mysqld, The Wrapper Around mysqld. You might need to run mysql_install_db as root. However, if you prefer, you can run the MySQL server as an unprivileged (non-root) user, provided that the user can read and write files in the database directory. Instructions for running MySQL as an unprivileged user are given in section A.3.2 How to Run MySQL As a Normal User. If you have problems with mysql_install_db, see section 2.4.1 Problems Running mysql_install_db. There are some alternatives to running the mysql_install_db script as it is provided in the MySQL distribution: For more information about these alternatives, see section 4.3.4 Setting Up the Initial MySQL Privileges.
  2. Start the MySQL server like this:
    shell> cd mysql_installation_directory
    shell> bin/safe_mysqld &
    
    If you have problems starting the server, see section 2.4.2 Problems Starting the MySQL Server.
  3. Use mysqladmin to verify that the server is running. The following commands provide a simple test to check that the server is up and responding to connections:
    shell> BINDIR/mysqladmin version
    shell> BINDIR/mysqladmin variables
    
    The output from mysqladmin version varies slightly depending on your platform and version of MySQL, but should be similar to that shown here:
    shell> BINDIR/mysqladmin version
    mysqladmin  Ver 8.14 Distrib 3.23.32, for linux on i586
    Copyright (C) 2000 MySQL AB & MySQL Finland AB & TCX DataKonsult AB
    This software comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY. This is free software,
    and you are welcome to modify and redistribute it under the GPL license.
    
    Server version          3.23.32-debug
    Protocol version        10
    Connection              Localhost via Unix socket
    TCP port                3306
    UNIX socket             /tmp/mysql.sock
    Uptime:                 16 sec
    
    Threads: 1  Questions: 9  Slow queries: 0
    Opens: 7  Flush tables: 2  Open tables: 0
    Queries per second avg: 0.000
    Memory in use: 132K  Max memory used: 16773K
    
    To get a feeling for what else you can do with BINDIR/mysqladmin, invoke it with the --help option.
  4. Verify that you can shut down the server:
    shell> BINDIR/mysqladmin -u root shutdown
    
  5. Verify that you can restart the server. Do this using safe_mysqld or by invoking mysqld directly. For example:
    shell> BINDIR/safe_mysqld --log &
    
    If safe_mysqld fails, try running it from the MySQL installation directory (if you are not already there). If that doesn't work, see section 2.4.2 Problems Starting the MySQL Server.
  6. Run some simple tests to verify that the server is working. The output should be similar to what is shown here:
    shell> BINDIR/mysqlshow
    +-----------+
    | Databases |
    +-----------+
    | mysql     |
    +-----------+
    
    shell> BINDIR/mysqlshow mysql
    Database: mysql
    +--------------+
    |    Tables    |
    +--------------+
    | columns_priv |
    | db           |
    | func         |
    | host         |
    | tables_priv  |
    | user         |
    +--------------+
    
    shell> BINDIR/mysql -e "SELECT host,db,user FROM db" mysql
    +------+--------+------+
    | host | db     | user |
    +------+--------+------+
    | %    | test   |      |
    | %    | test_% |      |
    +------+--------+------+
    
    There is also a benchmark suite in the `sql-bench' directory (under the MySQL installation directory) that you can use to compare how MySQL performs on different platforms. The `sql-bench/Results' directory contains the results from many runs against different databases and platforms. To run all tests, execute these commands:
    shell> cd sql-bench
    shell> run-all-tests
    
    If you don't have the `sql-bench' directory, you are probably using an RPM for a binary distribution. (Source distribution RPMs include the benchmark directory.) In this case, you must first install the benchmark suite before you can use it. Beginning with MySQL Version 3.22, there are benchmark RPM files named `mysql-bench-VERSION-i386.rpm' that contain benchmark code and data. If you have a source distribution, you can also run the tests in the `tests' subdirectory. For example, to run `auto_increment.tst', do this:
    shell> BINDIR/mysql -vvf test < ./tests/auto_increment.tst
    
    The expected results are shown in the `./tests/auto_increment.res' file.

2.4.1 Problems Running mysql_install_db

The purpose of the mysql_install_db script is to generate new MySQL privilege tables. It will not affect any other data! It will also not do anything if you already have MySQL privilege tables installed!

If you want to re-create your privilege tables, you should take down the mysqld server, if it's running, and then do something like:

mv mysql-data-directory/mysql mysql-data-directory/mysql-old
mysql_install_db

This section lists problems you might encounter when you run mysql_install_db:

mysql_install_db doesn't install the grant tables
You may find that mysql_install_db fails to install the grant tables and terminates after displaying the following messages:
starting mysqld daemon with databases from XXXXXX
mysql daemon ended
In this case, you should examine the log file very carefully! The log should be located in the directory `XXXXXX' named by the error message, and should indicate why mysqld didn't start. If you don't understand what happened, include the log when you post a bug report using mysqlbug! See section 1.6.1.3 How to Report Bugs or Problems.
There is already a mysqld daemon running
In this case, you probably don't have to run mysql_install_db at all. You have to run mysql_install_db only once, when you install MySQL the first time.
Installing a second mysqld daemon doesn't work when one daemon is running
This can happen when you already have an existing MySQL installation, but want to put a new installation in a different place (for example, for testing, or perhaps you simply want to run two installations at the same time). Generally the problem that occurs when you try to run the second server is that it tries to use the same socket and port as the old one. In this case you will get the error message: Can't start server: Bind on TCP/IP port: Address already in use or Can't start server: Bind on unix socket.... See section 4.1.3 Installing Many Servers on the Same Machine.
You don't have write access to `/tmp'
If you don't have write access to create a socket file at the default place (in `/tmp') or permission to create temporary files in `/tmp,' you will get an error when running mysql_install_db or when starting or using mysqld. You can specify a different socket and temporary directory as follows:
shell> TMPDIR=/some_tmp_dir/
shell> MYSQL_UNIX_PORT=/some_tmp_dir/mysqld.sock
shell> export TMPDIR MYSQL_UNIX_PORT
See section A.4.5 How to Protect or Change the MySQL Socket File `/tmp/mysql.sock'. `some_tmp_dir' should be the path to some directory for which you have write permission. See section F Environment Variables. After this you should be able to run mysql_install_db and start the server with these commands:
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db
shell> BINDIR/safe_mysqld &
mysqld crashes immediately
If you are running RedHat Version 5.0 with a version of glibc older than 2.0.7-5, you should make sure you have installed all glibc patches! There is a lot of information about this in the MySQL mail archives. Links to the mail archives are available online at http://lists.mysql.com/. Also, see section 2.6.1 Linux Notes (All Linux Versions). You can also start mysqld manually using the --skip-grant-tables option and add the privilege information yourself using mysql:
shell> BINDIR/safe_mysqld --skip-grant-tables &
shell> BINDIR/mysql -u root mysql
From mysql, manually execute the SQL commands in mysql_install_db. Make sure you run mysqladmin flush-privileges or mysqladmin reload afterward to tell the server to reload the grant tables.

2.4.2 Problems Starting the MySQL Server

If you are going to use tables that support transactions (InnoDB, BDB), you should first create a `my.cnf' file and set startup options for the table types you plan to use. See section 7 MySQL Table Types.

Generally, you start the mysqld server in one of these ways:

When the mysqld daemon starts up, it changes the directory to the data directory. This is where it expects to write log files and the pid (process ID) file, and where it expects to find databases.

The data directory location is hardwired in when the distribution is compiled. However, if mysqld expects to find the data directory somewhere other than where it really is on your system, it will not work properly. If you have problems with incorrect paths, you can find out what options mysqld allows and what the default path settings are by invoking mysqld with the --help option. You can override the defaults by specifying the correct pathnames as command-line arguments to mysqld. (These options can be used with safe_mysqld as well.)

Normally you should need to tell mysqld only the base directory under which MySQL is installed. You can do this with the --basedir option. You can also use --help to check the effect of changing path options (note that --help must be the final option of the mysqld command). For example:

shell> EXECDIR/mysqld --basedir=/usr/local --help

Once you determine the path settings you want, start the server without the --help option.

Whichever method you use to start the server, if it fails to start up correctly, check the log file to see if you can find out why. Log files are located in the data directory (typically `/usr/local/mysql/data' for a binary distribution, `/usr/local/var' for a source distribution, and `\mysql\data\mysql.err' on Windows). Look in the data directory for files with names of the form `host_name.err' and `host_name.log' where host_name is the name of your server host. Then check the last few lines of these files:

shell> tail host_name.err
shell> tail host_name.log

Look for something like the following in the log file:

000729 14:50:10  bdb:  Recovery function for LSN 1 27595 failed
000729 14:50:10  bdb:  warning: ./test/t1.db: No such file or directory
000729 14:50:10  Can't init databases

This means that you didn't start mysqld with --bdb-no-recover and Berkeley DB found something wrong with its log files when it tried to recover your databases. To be able to continue, you should move away the old Berkeley DB log file from the database directory to some other place, where you can later examine it. The log files are named `log.0000000001', where the number will increase over time.

If you are running mysqld with BDB table support and mysqld core dumps at start this could be because of some problems with the BDB recover log. In this case you can try starting mysqld with --bdb-no-recover. If this helps, then you should remove all `log.*' files from the data directory and try starting mysqld again.

If you get the following error, it means that some other program (or another mysqld server) is already using the TCP/IP port or socket mysqld is trying to use:

Can't start server: Bind on TCP/IP port: Address already in use
  or
Can't start server : Bind on unix socket...

Use ps to make sure that you don't have another mysqld server running. If you can't find another server running, you can try to execute the command telnet your-host-name tcp-ip-port-number and press Enter a couple of times. If you don't get an error message like telnet: Unable to connect to remote host: Connection refused, something is using the TCP/IP port mysqld is trying to use. See section 2.4.1 Problems Running mysql_install_db and section 4.1.4 Running Multiple MySQL Servers on the Same Machine.

If mysqld is currently running, you can find out what path settings it is using by executing this command:

shell> mysqladmin variables

or

shell> mysqladmin -h 'your-host-name' variables

If you get Errcode 13, which means Permission denied, when starting mysqld this means that you didn't have the right to read/create files in the MySQL database or log directory. In this case you should either start mysqld as the root user or change the permissions for the involved files and directories so that you have the right to use them.

If safe_mysqld starts the server but you can't connect to it, you should make sure you have an entry in `/etc/hosts' that looks like this:

127.0.0.1       localhost

This problem occurs only on systems that don't have a working thread library and for which MySQL must be configured to use MIT-pthreads.

If you can't get mysqld to start you can try to make a trace file to find the problem. See section E.1.2 Creating Trace Files.

If you are using InnoDB tables, refer to the InnoDB-specific startup options. See section 7.5.2 InnoDB Startup Options.

If you are using BDB (Berkeley DB) tables, you should familiarise yourself with the different BDB-specific startup options. See section 7.6.3 BDB startup options.

2.4.3 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically

The mysql.server and safe_mysqld scripts can be used to start the server automatically at system startup time. mysql.server can also be used to stop the server.

The mysql.server script can be used to start or stop the server by invoking it with start or stop arguments:

shell> mysql.server start
shell> mysql.server stop

mysql.server can be found in the `share/mysql' directory under the MySQL installation directory or in the `support-files' directory of the MySQL source tree.

Before mysql.server starts the server, it changes the directory to the MySQL installation directory, then invokes safe_mysqld. You might need to edit mysql.server if you have a binary distribution that you've installed in a non-standard location. Modify it to cd into the proper directory before it runs safe_mysqld. If you want the server to run as some specific user, add an appropriate user line to the `/etc/my.cnf' file, as shown later in this section.

mysql.server stop brings down the server by sending a signal to it. You can also take down the server manually by executing mysqladmin shutdown.

You need to add these start and stop commands to the appropriate places in your `/etc/rc*' files when you want to start up MySQL automatically on your server.

On most current Linux distributions, it is sufficient to copy the file mysql.server into the `/etc/init.d' directory (or `/etc/rc.d/init.d' on older Red Hat systems). Afterwards, run the following command to enable the startup of MySQL on system bootup:

shell> chkconfig --add mysql.server

As an alternative to the above, some operating systems also use `/etc/rc.local' or `/etc/init.d/boot.local' to start additional services on bootup. To start up MySQL using this method, you could append something like the following to it:

/bin/sh -c 'cd /usr/local/mysql ; ./bin/safe_mysqld --user=mysql &'

You can also add options for mysql.server in a global `/etc/my.cnf' file. A typical `/etc/my.cnf' file might look like this:

[mysqld]
datadir=/usr/local/mysql/var
socket=/var/tmp/mysql.sock
port=3306
user=mysql

[mysql_server]
basedir=/usr/local/mysql

The mysql.server script understands the following options: datadir, basedir, and pid-file.

The following table shows which option groups each of the startup scripts read from option files:

Script Option groups
mysqld mysqld and server
mysql.server mysql.server, mysqld, and server
safe_mysqld mysql.server, mysqld, and server

See section 4.1.2 `my.cnf' Option Files.

2.5 Upgrading/Downgrading MySQL

You can always move the MySQL form and datafiles between different versions on the same architecture as long as you have the same base version of MySQL. The current base version is 3. If you change the character set when running MySQL (which may also change the sort order), you must run myisamchk -r -q --set-character-set=charset on all tables. Otherwise, your indexes may not be ordered correctly.

If you are afraid of new versions, you can always rename your old mysqld to something like mysqld-old-version-number. If your new mysqld then does something unexpected, you can simply shut it down and restart with your old mysqld!

When you do an upgrade you should also back up your old databases, of course.

If after an upgrade, you experience problems with recompiled client programs, like Commands out of sync or unexpected core dumps, you probably have used an old header or library file when compiling your programs. In this case you should check the date for your `mysql.h' file and `libmysqlclient.a' library to verify that they are from the new MySQL distribution. If not, please recompile your programs!

If you get some problems that the new mysqld server doesn't want to start or that you can't connect without a password, check that you don't have some old `my.cnf' file from your old installation! You can check this with: program-name --print-defaults. If this outputs anything other than the program name, you have an active `my.cnf' file that will affect things!

It is a good idea to rebuild and reinstall the Msql-Mysql-modules distribution whenever you install a new release of MySQL, particularly if you notice symptoms such as all your DBI scripts dumping core after you upgrade MySQL.

2.5.1 Upgrading From Version 4.0 to Version 4.1

In general what you have to do when upgrading to 4.1 from an earlier MySQL version:

The following is a more complete lists tell what you have to watch out for when upgrading to version 4.1;

Note that the table definition format (.frm) has changed slightly in 4.1. MySQL 4.0.11 can read the new .frm format but older version can not. If you need to go move tables from 4.1 to and earlier MySQL version you should use mysqldump. See section 4.8.5 mysqldump, Dumping Table Structure and Data.

2.5.2 Upgrading From Version 3.23 to Version 4.0

In general what you have to do when upgrading to 4.0 from an earlier MySQL version:

MySQL 4.0 will work even if you don't do the above, but you will not be able to use the new security privileges that MySQL 4.0 and you may run into problems when upgrading later to MySQL 4.1 or newer. The ISAM file format still works in MySQL 4.0 but it's deprecated and will be disabled in MySQL 5.0.

Old clients should work with a Version 4.0 server without any problems.

Even if you do the above, you can still downgrade to MySQL 3.23.52 or newer if you run into problems with the MySQL 4.0 series. In this case you have to do a mysqldump of any tables using a full-text index and restore these in 3.23 (because 4.0 uses a new format for full-text index).

The following is a more complete lists tell what you have to watch out for when upgrading to version 4.0;

2.5.3 Upgrading From Version 3.22 to Version 3.23

MySQL Version 3.23 supports tables of the new MyISAM type and the old ISAM type. You don't have to convert your old tables to use these with Version 3.23. By default, all new tables will be created with type MyISAM (unless you start mysqld with the --default-table-type=isam option). You can change an ISAM table to a MyISAM table with ALTER TABLE table_name TYPE=MyISAM or the Perl script mysql_convert_table_format.

Version 3.22 and 3.21 clients will work without any problems with a Version 3.23 server.

The following list tells what you have to watch out for when upgrading to Version 3.23:

2.5.4 Upgrading from Version 3.21 to Version 3.22

Nothing that affects compatibility has changed between versions 3.21 and 3.22. The only pitfall is that new tables that are created with DATE type columns will use the new way to store the date. You can't access these new fields from an old version of mysqld.

After installing MySQL Version 3.22, you should start the new server and then run the mysql_fix_privilege_tables script. This will add the new privileges that you need to use the GRANT command. If you forget this, you will get Access denied when you try to use ALTER TABLE, CREATE INDEX, or DROP INDEX. If your MySQL root user requires a password, you should give this as an argument to mysql_fix_privilege_tables.

The C API interface to mysql_real_connect() has changed. If you have an old client program that calls this function, you must place a 0 for the new db argument (or recode the client to send the db element for faster connections). You must also call mysql_init() before calling mysql_real_connect()! This change was done to allow the new mysql_options() function to save options in the MYSQL handler structure.

The mysqld variable key_buffer has changed names to key_buffer_size, but you can still use the old name in your startup files.

2.5.5 Upgrading from Version 3.20 to Version 3.21

If you are running a version older than Version 3.20.28 and want to switch to Version 3.21, you need to do the following:

You can start the mysqld Version 3.21 server with safe_mysqld --old-protocol to use it with clients from a Version 3.20 distribution. In this case, the new client function mysql_errno() will not return any server error, only CR_UNKNOWN_ERROR (but it works for client errors), and the server uses the old password() checking rather than the new one.

If you are not using the --old-protocol option to mysqld, you will need to make the following changes:

MySQL Version 3.20.28 and above can handle the new user table format without affecting clients. If you have a MySQL version earlier than Version 3.20.28, passwords will no longer work with it if you convert the user table. So to be safe, you should first upgrade to at least Version 3.20.28 and then upgrade to Version 3.21.

The new client code works with a 3.20.x mysqld server, so if you experience problems with 3.21.x, you can use the old 3.20.x server without having to recompile the clients again.

If you are not using the --old-protocol option to mysqld, old clients will issue the error message:

ERROR: Protocol mismatch. Server Version = 10 Client Version = 9

The new Perl DBI/DBD interface also supports the old mysqlperl interface. The only change you have to make if you use mysqlperl is to change the arguments to the connect() function. The new arguments are: host, database, user, and password (the user and password arguments have changed places). See section 8.2.2 The DBI Interface.

The following changes may affect queries in old applications:

2.5.6 Upgrading to Another Architecture

If you are using MySQL Version 3.23, you can copy the `.frm', `.MYI', and `.MYD' files between different architectures that support the same floating-point format. (MySQL takes care of any byte-swapping issues.)

The MySQL ISAM data and index files (`.ISD' and `*.ISM', respectively) are architecture-dependent and in some cases OS-dependent. If you want to move your applications to another machine that has a different architecture or OS than your current machine, you should not try to move a database by simply copying the files to the other machine. Use mysqldump instead.

By default, mysqldump will create a file full of SQL statements. You can then transfer the file to the other machine and feed it as input to the mysql client.

Try mysqldump --help to see what options are available. If you are moving the data to a newer version of MySQL, you should use mysqldump --opt with the newer version to get a fast, compact dump.

The easiest (although not the fastest) way to move a database between two machines is to run the following commands on the machine on which the database is located:

shell> mysqladmin -h 'other hostname' create db_name
shell> mysqldump --opt db_name \
        | mysql -h 'other hostname' db_name

If you want to copy a database from a remote machine over a slow network, you can use:

shell> mysqladmin create db_name
shell> mysqldump -h 'other hostname' --opt --compress db_name \
        | mysql db_name

You can also store the result in a file, then transfer the file to the target machine and load the file into the database there. For example, you can dump a database to a file on the source machine like this:

shell> mysqldump --quick db_name | gzip > db_name.contents.gz

(The file created in this example is compressed.) Transfer the file containing the database contents to the target machine and run these commands there:

shell> mysqladmin create db_name
shell> gunzip < db_name.contents.gz | mysql db_name

You can also use mysqldump and mysqlimport to accomplish the database transfer. For big tables, this is much faster than simply using mysqldump. In the following commands, DUMPDIR represents the full pathname of the directory you use to store the output from mysqldump.

First, create the directory for the output files and dump the database:

shell> mkdir DUMPDIR
shell> mysqldump --tab=DUMPDIR db_name

Then transfer the files in the DUMPDIR directory to some corresponding directory on the target machine and load the files into MySQL there:

shell> mysqladmin create db_name           # create database
shell> cat DUMPDIR/*.sql | mysql db_name   # create tables in database
shell> mysqlimport db_name DUMPDIR/*.txt   # load data into tables

Also, don't forget to copy the mysql database because that's where the grant tables (user, db, host) are stored. You may have to run commands as the MySQL root user on the new machine until you have the mysql database in place.

After you import the mysql database on the new machine, execute mysqladmin flush-privileges so that the server reloads the grant table information.

2.6 Operating System Specific Notes

2.6.1 Linux Notes (All Linux Versions)

The following notes regarding glibc apply only to the situation when you build MySQL yourself. If you are running Linux on an x86 machine, in most cases it is much better for you to just use our binary. We link our binaries against the best patched version of glibc we can come up with and with the best compiler options, in an attempt to make it suitable for a high-load server. So if you read the following text, and are in doubt about what you should do, try our binary first to see if it meets your needs, and worry about your own build only after you have discovered that our binary is not good enough. In that case, we would appreciate a note about it, so we can build a better binary next time. For a typical user, even for setups with a lot of concurrent connections and/or tables exceeding the 2G limit, our binary in most cases is the best choice.

MySQL uses LinuxThreads on Linux. If you are using an old Linux version that doesn't have glibc2, you must install LinuxThreads before trying to compile MySQL. You can get LinuxThreads at http://www.mysql.com/downloads/os-linux.html.

Note: we have seen some strange problems with Linux 2.2.14 and MySQL on SMP systems. If you have a SMP system, we recommend you upgrade to Linux 2.4 as soon as possible! Your system will be faster and more stable by doing this!

Note that glibc versions before and including Version 2.1.1 have a fatal bug in pthread_mutex_timedwait handling, which is used when you do INSERT DELAYED. We recommend that you not use INSERT DELAYED before upgrading glibc.

If you plan to have 1000+ concurrent connections, you will need to make some changes to LinuxThreads, recompile it, and relink MySQL against the new `libpthread.a'. Increase PTHREAD_THREADS_MAX in `sysdeps/unix/sysv/linux/bits/local_lim.h' to 4096 and decrease STACK_SIZE in `linuxthreads/internals.h' to 256 KB. The paths are relative to the root of glibc Note that MySQL will not be stable with around 600-1000 connections if STACK_SIZE is the default of 2 MB.

If MySQL can't open enough files, or connections, it may be that you haven't configured Linux to handle enough files.

In Linux 2.2 and onward, you can check the number of allocated file handles by doing:

cat /proc/sys/fs/file-max
cat /proc/sys/fs/dquot-max
cat /proc/sys/fs/super-max

If you have more than 16 MB of memory, you should add something like the following to your init scripts (e.g. `/etc/init.d/boot.local' on SuSE Linux):

echo 65536 > /proc/sys/fs/file-max
echo 8192 > /proc/sys/fs/dquot-max
echo 1024 > /proc/sys/fs/super-max

You can also run the preceding commands from the command-line as root, but these settings will be lost the next time your computer reboots.

Alternatively, you can set these parameters on bootup by using the sysctl tool, which is used by many Linux distributions (SuSE has added it as well, beginning with SuSE Linux 8.0). Just put the following values into a file named `/etc/sysctl.conf':

# Increase some values for MySQL
fs.file-max = 65536
fs.dquot-max = 8192
fs.super-max = 1024

You should also add the following to `/etc/my.cnf':

[safe_mysqld]
open-files-limit=8192

This should allow MySQL to create up to 8192 connections + files.

The STACK_SIZE constant in LinuxThreads controls the spacing of thread stacks in the address space. It needs to be large enough so that there will be plenty of room for the stack of each individual thread, but small enough to keep the stack of some threads from running into the global mysqld data. Unfortunately, the Linux implementation of mmap(), as we have experimentally discovered, will successfully unmap an already mapped region if you ask it to map out an address already in use, zeroing out the data on the entire page, instead of returning an error. So, the safety of mysqld or any other threaded application depends on the "gentleman" behaviour of the code that creates threads. The user must take measures to make sure the number of running threads at any time is sufficiently low for thread stacks to stay away from the global heap. With mysqld, you should enforce this "gentleman" behaviour by setting a reasonable value for the max_connections variable.

If you build MySQL yourself and do not want to mess with patching LinuxThreads, you should set max_connections to a value no higher than 500. It should be even less if you have a large key buffer, large heap tables, or some other things that make mysqld allocate a lot of memory, or if you are running a 2.2 kernel with a 2G patch. If you are using our binary or RPM version 3.23.25 or later, you can safely set max_connections at 1500, assuming no large key buffer or heap tables with lots of data. The more you reduce STACK_SIZE in LinuxThreads the more threads you can safely create. We recommend the values between 128K and 256K.

If you use a lot of concurrent connections, you may suffer from a "feature" in the 2.2 kernel that penalises a process for forking or cloning a child in an attempt to prevent a fork bomb attack. This will cause MySQL not to scale well as you increase the number of concurrent clients. On single-CPU systems, we have seen this manifested in a very slow thread creation, which means it may take a long time to connect to MySQL (as long as 1 minute), and it may take just as long to shut it down. On multiple-CPU systems, we have observed a gradual drop in query speed as the number of clients increases. In the process of trying to find a solution, we have received a kernel patch from one of our users, who claimed it made a lot of difference for his site. The patch is available at http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Patches/linux-fork.patch. We have now done rather extensive testing of this patch on both development and production systems. It has significantly improved MySQL performance without causing any problems and we now recommend it to our users who are still running high-load servers on 2.2 kernels. This issue has been fixed in the 2.4 kernel, so if you are not satisfied with the current performance of your system, rather than patching your 2.2 kernel, it might be easier to just upgrade to 2.4, which will also give you a nice SMP boost in addition to fixing this fairness bug.

We have tested MySQL on the 2.4 kernel on a 2-CPU machine and found MySQL scales much better@-there was virtually no slowdown on queries throughput all the way up to 1000 clients, and the MySQL scaling factor (computed as the ratio of maximum throughput to the throughput with one client) was 180%. We have observed similar results on a 4-CPU system@-virtually no slowdown as the number of clients was increased up to 1000, and 300% scaling factor. So for a high-load SMP server we would definitely recommend the 2.4 kernel at this point. We have discovered that it is essential to run mysqld process with the highest possible priority on the 2.4 kernel to achieve maximum performance. This can be done by adding renice -20 $$ command to safe_mysqld. In our testing on a 4-CPU machine, increasing the priority gave 60% increase in throughput with 400 clients.

We are currently also trying to collect more info on how well MySQL performs on 2.4 kernel on 4-way and 8-way systems. If you have access such a system and have done some benchmarks, please send a mail to docs@mysql.com with the results - we will include them in the manual.

There is another issue that greatly hurts MySQL performance, especially on SMP systems. The implementation of mutex in LinuxThreads in glibc-2.1 is very bad for programs with many threads that only hold the mutex for a short time. On an SMP system, ironic as it is, if you link MySQL against unmodified LinuxThreads, removing processors from the machine improves MySQL performance in many cases. We have made a patch available for glibc 2.1.3 to correct this behaviour (http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Linux/linuxthreads-2.1-patch).

With glibc-2.2.2 MySQL version 3.23.36 will use the adaptive mutex, which is much better than even the patched one in glibc-2.1.3. Be warned, however, that under some conditions, the current mutex code in glibc-2.2.2 overspins, which hurts MySQL performance. The chance of this condition can be reduced by renicing mysqld process to the highest priority. We have also been able to correct the overspin behaviour with a patch, available at http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Linux/linuxthreads-2.2.2.patch. It combines the correction of overspin, maximum number of threads, and stack spacing all in one. You will need to apply it in the linuxthreads directory with patch -p0 </tmp/linuxthreads-2.2.2.patch. We hope it will be included in some form in to the future releases of glibc-2.2. In any case, if you link against glibc-2.2.2 you still need to correct STACK_SIZE and PTHREAD_THREADS_MAX. We hope that the defaults will be corrected to some more acceptable values for high-load MySQL setup in the future, so that your own build can be reduced to ./configure; make; make install.

We recommend that you use the above patches to build a special static version of libpthread.a and use it only for statically linking against MySQL. We know that the patches are safe for MySQL and significantly improve its performance, but we cannot say anything about other applications. If you link other applications against the patched version of the library, or build a patched shared version and install it on your system, you are doing it at your own risk with regard to other applications that depend on LinuxThreads.

If you experience any strange problems during the installation of MySQL, or with some common utilties hanging, it is very likely that they are either library or compiler related. If this is the case, using our binary will resolve them.

One known problem with the binary distribution is that with older Linux systems that use libc (like RedHat 4.x or Slackware), you will get some non-fatal problems with hostname resolution. See section 2.6.1.1 Linux Notes for Binary Distributions.

When using LinuxThreads you will see a minimum of three processes running. These are in fact threads. There will be one thread for the LinuxThreads manager, one thread to handle connections, and one thread to handle alarms and signals.

Note that the Linux kernel and the LinuxThread library can by default only have 1024 threads. This means that you can only have up to 1021 connections to MySQL on an unpatched system. The page http://www.volano.com/linuxnotes.html contains information how to go around this limit.

If you see a dead mysqld daemon process with ps, this usually means that you have found a bug in MySQL or you have a corrupted table. See section A.4.1 What To Do If MySQL Keeps Crashing.

To get a core dump on Linux if mysqld dies with a SIGSEGV signal, you can start mysqld with the --core-file option. Note that you also probably need to raise the core file size by adding ulimit -c 1000000 to safe_mysqld or starting safe_mysqld with --core-file-size=1000000. See section 4.7.2 safe_mysqld, The Wrapper Around mysqld.

If you are linking your own MySQL client and get the error:

ld.so.1: ./my: fatal: libmysqlclient.so.4:
open failed: No such file or directory

When executing them, the problem can be avoided by one of the following methods:

If you are using the Fujitsu compiler (fcc / FCC) you will have some problems compiling MySQL because the Linux header files are very gcc oriented.

The following configure line should work with fcc/FCC:

CC=fcc CFLAGS="-O -K fast -K lib -K omitfp -Kpreex -D_GNU_SOURCE \
-DCONST=const -DNO_STRTOLL_PROTO" CXX=FCC CXXFLAGS="-O -K fast -K lib \
-K omitfp -K preex --no_exceptions --no_rtti -D_GNU_SOURCE -DCONST=const \
-Dalloca=__builtin_alloca -DNO_STRTOLL_PROTO \
'-D_EXTERN_INLINE=static __inline'" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
--enable-assembler --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static --disable-shared \
--with-low-memory

2.6.1.1 Linux Notes for Binary Distributions

MySQL needs at least Linux Version 2.0.

Warning: We have reports from some MySQL users that they have got serious stability problems with MySQL with Linux kernel 2.2.14. If you are using this kernel you should upgrade to 2.2.19 (or newer) or to a 2.4 kernel. If you have a multi-cpu box, then you should seriously consider using 2.4 as this will give you a significant speed boost.

The binary release is linked with -static, which means you do not normally need to worry about which version of the system libraries you have. You need not install LinuxThreads, either. A program linked with -static is slightly bigger than a dynamically linked program but also slightly faster (3-5%). One problem, however, is that you can't use user-definable functions (UDFs) with a statically linked program. If you are going to write or use UDF functions (this is something only for C or C++ programmers), you must compile MySQL yourself, using dynamic linking.

If you are using a libc-based system (instead of a glibc2 system), you will probably get some problems with hostname resolving and getpwnam() with the binary release. (This is because glibc unfortunately depends on some external libraries to resolve hostnames and getpwent(), even when compiled with -static). In this case you probably get the following error message when you run mysql_install_db:

Sorry, the host 'xxxx' could not be looked up

or the following error when you try to run mysqld with the --user option:

getpwnam: No such file or directory

You can solve this problem in one of the following ways:

The Linux-Intel binary and RPM releases of MySQL are configured for the highest possible speed. We are always trying to use the fastest stable compiler available.

MySQL Perl support requires Version Perl 5.004_03 or newer.

On some Linux 2.2 versions, you may get the error Resource temporarily unavailable when you do a lot of new connections to a mysqld server over TCP/IP.

The problem is that Linux has a delay between when you close a TCP/IP socket and until this is actually freed by the system. As there is only room for a finite number of TCP/IP slots, you will get the above error if you try to do too many new TCP/IP connections during a small time, like when you run the MySQL `test-connect' benchmark over TCP/IP.

We have mailed about this problem a couple of times to different Linux mailing lists but have never been able to resolve this properly.

The only known 'fix' to this problem is to use persistent connections in your clients or use sockets, if you are running the database server and clients on the same machine. We hope that the Linux 2.4 kernel will fix this problem in the future.

2.6.1.2 Linux x86 Notes

MySQL requires libc Version 5.4.12 or newer. It's known to work with libc 5.4.46. glibc Version 2.0.6 and later should also work. There have been some problems with the glibc RPMs from RedHat, so if you have problems, check whether there are any updates! The glibc 2.0.7-19 and 2.0.7-29 RPMs are known to work.

If you are using Red Hat 8.0 or a new glibc 2.2.x library you should start mysqld with the option --thread-stack=192K. If you don't do it mysqld will die in gethostbyaddr() because the new glibc library requires > 128K memory on stack for this call. This stack size is now the default on MySQL 4.0.10 and above.

If you are using gcc 3.0 and above to compile MySQL, you must install the libstdc++v3 library before compiling MySQL; if you don't do this you will get an error about a missing __cxa_pure_virtual symbol during linking!

On some older Linux distributions, configure may produce an error like this:

Syntax error in sched.h. Change _P to __P in the /usr/include/sched.h file.
See the Installation chapter in the Reference Manual.

Just do what the error message says and add an extra underscore to the _P macro that has only one underscore, then try again.

You may get some warnings when compiling; those shown here can be ignored:

mysqld.cc -o objs-thread/mysqld.o
mysqld.cc: In function `void init_signals()':
mysqld.cc:315: warning: assignment of negative value `-1' to
`long unsigned int'
mysqld.cc: In function `void * signal_hand(void *)':
mysqld.cc:346: warning: assignment of negative value `-1' to
`long unsigned int'

mysql.server can be found in the `share/mysql' directory under the MySQL installation directory or in the `support-files' directory of the MySQL source tree.

If mysqld always core dumps when it starts up, the problem may be that you have an old `/lib/libc.a'. Try renaming it, then remove `sql/mysqld' and do a new make install and try again. This problem has been reported on some Slackware installations.

If you get the following error when linking mysqld, it means that your `libg++.a' is not installed correctly:

/usr/lib/libc.a(putc.o): In function `_IO_putc':
putc.o(.text+0x0): multiple definition of `_IO_putc'

You can avoid using `libg++.a' by running configure like this:

shell> CXX=gcc ./configure

2.6.1.3 Linux SPARC Notes

In some implementations, readdir_r() is broken. The symptom is that SHOW DATABASES always returns an empty set. This can be fixed by removing HAVE_READDIR_R from `config.h' after configuring and before compiling.

Some problems will require patching your Linux installation. The patch can be found at http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/patches/Linux-sparc-2.0.30.diff. This patch is against the Linux distribution `sparclinux-2.0.30.tar.gz' that is available at vger.rutgers.edu (a version of Linux that was never merged with the official 2.0.30). You must also install LinuxThreads Version 0.6 or newer.

2.6.1.4 Linux Alpha Notes

MySQL Version 3.23.12 is the first MySQL version that is tested on Linux-Alpha. If you plan to use MySQL on Linux-Alpha, you should ensure that you have this version or newer.

We have tested MySQL on Alpha with our benchmarks and test suite, and it appears to work nicely.

We currently build the MySQL binary packages on SuSE Linux 7.0 for AXP, kernel 2.4.4-SMP, Compaq C compiler (V6.2-505) and Compaq C++ compiler (V6.3-006) on a Compaq DS20 machine with an Alpha EV6 processor.

You can find the above compilers at http://www.support.compaq.com/alpha-tools/). By using these compilers, instead of gcc, we get about 9-14% better performance with MySQL.

Note that until MySQL version 3.23.52 and 4.0.2 we optimised the binary for the current CPU only (by using the -fast compile option); this meant that you could only use our binaries if you had an Alpha EV6 processor.

Starting with all following releases we added the -arch generic flag to our compile options, which makes sure the binary runs on all Alpha processors. We also compile statically to avoid library problems.

CC=ccc CFLAGS="-fast -arch generic" CXX=cxx \
CXXFLAGS="-fast -arch generic -noexceptions -nortti" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --disable-shared \
--with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client \
--with-mysqld-ldflags=-non_shared --with-client-ldflags=-non_shared

If you want to use egcs the following configure line worked for us:

CFLAGS="-O3 -fomit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fomit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors \
-fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
--disable-shared

Some known problems when running MySQL on Linux-Alpha:

2.6.1.5 Linux PowerPC Notes

MySQL should work on MkLinux with the newest glibc package (tested with glibc 2.0.7).

2.6.1.6 Linux MIPS Notes

To get MySQL to work on Qube2, (Linux Mips), you need the newest glibc libraries (glibc-2.0.7-29C2 is known to work). You must also use the egcs C++ compiler (egcs-1.0.2-9, gcc 2.95.2 or newer).

2.6.1.7 Linux IA64 Notes

To get MySQL to compile on Linux IA64, we use the following compile line: Using gcc-2.96:

CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors \
-fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
"--with-comment=Official MySQL binary" --with-extra-charsets=complex

On IA64 the MySQL client binaries are using shared libraries. This means that if you install our binary distribution in some other place than `/usr/local/mysql' you need to either modify `/etc/ld.so.conf' or add the path to the directory where you have `libmysqlclient.so' to the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable.

See section A.3.1 Problems When Linking with the MySQL Client Library.

2.6.2 Windows Notes

This section describes using MySQL on Windows. This information is also provided in the `README' file that comes with the MySQL Windows distribution. See section 2.1.2 Installing MySQL on Windows.

2.6.2.1 Starting MySQL on Windows 95, 98 or Me

MySQL uses TCP/IP to connect a client to a server. (This will allow any machine on your network to connect to your MySQL server.) Because of this, you must install TCP/IP on your machine before starting MySQL. You can find TCP/IP on your Windows CD-ROM.

Note that if you are using an old Windows 95 release (for example OSR2), it's likely that you have an old Winsock package; MySQL requires Winsock 2! You can get the newest Winsock from http://www.microsoft.com/. Windows 98 has the new Winsock 2 library, so the above doesn't apply there.

To start the mysqld server, you should start an MS-DOS window and type:

C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld

This will start mysqld in the background without a window.

You can kill the MySQL server by executing:

C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqladmin -u root shutdown

This calls the MySQL administation utility as user `root', which is the default Administrator in the MySQL grant system. Please note that the MySQL grant system is wholly independent from any login users under Windows.

Note that Windows 95/98/Me don't support creation of named pipes. So on those platforms, you can only use named pipes to connect to a remote MySQL server running on a Windows NT/2000/XP server host. (The MySQL server must also support named pipes, of course. For example, using mysqld-opt under NT/2000/XP will not allow named pipe connections. You should use either mysqld-nt or mysqld-max-nt.)

If mysqld doesn't start, please check the `\mysql\data\mysql.err' file to see if the server wrote any message there to indicate the cause of the problem. You can also try to start the server with mysqld --standalone; in this case, you may get some useful information on the screen that may help solve the problem.

The last option is to start mysqld with --standalone --debug. In this case mysqld will write a log file `C:\mysqld.trace' that should contain the reason why mysqld doesn't start. See section E.1.2 Creating Trace Files.

Use mysqld --help to display all the options that mysqld understands!

2.6.2.2 Starting MySQL on Windows NT, 2000 or XP

To get MySQL to work with TCP/IP on Windows NT 4, you must install service pack 3 (or newer)!

Normally you should install MySQL as a service on Windows NT/2000/XP. In case the server was already running, first stop it using the following command:

C:\mysql\bin> mysqladmin -u root shutdown

This calls the MySQL administation utility as user `root', which is the default Administrator in the MySQL grant system. Please note that the MySQL grant system is wholly independent from any login users under Windows.

Now install the server service:

C:\mysql\bin> mysqld-max-nt --install

If any options are required, they must be specified as ``Start parameters'' in the Windows Services utility before you start the MySQL service.

The Services utility (Windows Service Control Manager) can be found in the Windows Control Panel (under Administrative Tools on Windows 2000). It is advisable to close the Services utility while performing the --install or --remove operations, this prevents some odd errors.

For information about which server binary to run, see section 2.1.2.2 Preparing the Windows MySQL Environment.

Please note that from MySQL version 3.23.44, you have the choice of set up the service as Manual instead (if you don't wish the service to be started automatically during the boot process):

C:\mysql\bin> mysqld-max-nt --install-manual

The service is installed with the name MySQL. Once installed, it can be immediately started from the Services utility, or by using the command NET START MySQL.

Once running, mysqld-max-nt can be stopped using mysqladmin, from the Services utility, or by using the command NET STOP MySQL.

When running as a service, the operating system will automatically stop the MySQL service on computer shutdown. In MySQL versions < 3.23.47, Windows only waited for a few seconds for the shutdown to complete, and killed the database server process if the time limit was exceeded (potentially causing problems). For instance, at the next startup the InnoDB storage engine had to do crash recovery. Starting from MySQL version 3.23.48, the Windows will wait longer for the MySQL server shutdown to complete. If you notice this is not enough for your intallation, it is safest to run the MySQL server not as a service, but from the Command prompt, and shut it down with mysqladmin shutdown.

There is a problem that Windows NT (but not Windows 2000/XP) by default only waits 20 seconds for a service to shut down, and after that kills the service process. You can increase this default by opening the Registry Editor `\winnt\system32\regedt32.exe' and editing the value of WaitToKillServiceTimeout at `HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control' in the Registry tree. Specify the new larger value in milliseconds, for example 120000 to have Windows NT wait upto 120 seconds.

Please note that when run as a service, mysqld-max-nt has no access to a console and so no messages can be seen. Errors can be checked in `c:\mysql\data\mysql.err'.

If you have problems installing mysqld-max-nt as a service, try starting it with the full path:

C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld-max-nt --install

If this doesn't work, you can get mysqld-max-nt to start properly by fixing the path in the registry!

If you don't want to start mysqld-max-nt as a service, you can start it as follows:

C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld-max-nt --standalone

or

C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld --standalone --debug

The last method gives you a debug trace in `C:\mysqld.trace'. See section E.1.2 Creating Trace Files.

2.6.2.3 Running MySQL on Windows

MySQL supports TCP/IP on all Windows platforms and named pipes on NT/2000/XP. The default is to use named pipes for local connections on NT/2000/XP and TCP/IP for all other cases if the client has TCP/IP installed. The host name specifies which protocol is used:

Host name Protocol
NULL (none) On NT/2000/XP, try named pipes first; if that doesn't work, use TCP/IP. On 9x/Me, TCP/IP is used.
. Named pipes
localhost TCP/IP to current host
hostname TCP/IP

You can force a MySQL client to use named pipes by specifying the --pipe option or by specifying . as the host name. Use the --socket option to specify the name of the pipe. In MySQL 4.1 you should use the --protocol=PIPE option.

Note that starting from 3.23.50, named pipes are only enabled if mysqld is started with --enable-named-pipe. This is because some users have experienced problems shutting down the MySQL server when one uses named pipes.

You can test whether MySQL is working by executing the following commands:

C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqlshow
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqlshow -u root mysql
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqladmin version status proc
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysql test

If mysqld is slow to answer to connections on Windows 9x/Me, there is probably a problem with your DNS. In this case, start mysqld with --skip-name-resolve and use only localhost and IP numbers in the MySQL grant tables. You can also avoid DNS when connecting to a mysqld-nt MySQL server running on NT/2000/XP by using the --pipe argument to specify use of named pipes. This works for most MySQL clients.

There are two versions of the MySQL command-line tool:
Binary Description
mysql Compiled on native Windows, which offers very limited text editing capabilities.
mysqlc Compiled with the Cygnus GNU compiler and libraries, which offers readline editing.

If you want to use mysqlc.exe, you must copy `C:\mysql\lib\cygwinb19.dll' to your Windows system directory (`\windows\system' or similar place).

The default privileges on Windows give all local users full privileges to all databases without specifying a password. To make MySQL more secure, you should set a password for all users and remove the row in the mysql.user table that has Host='localhost' and User=''.

You should also add a password for the root user. The following example starts by removing the anonymous user that has all privileges, then sets a root user password:

C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysql mysql
mysql> DELETE FROM user WHERE Host='localhost' AND User='';
mysql> QUIT
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqladmin reload
C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqladmin -u root password your_password

After you've set the password, if you want to take down the mysqld server, you can do so using this command:

C:\> mysqladmin --user=root --password=your_password shutdown

If you are using the old shareware version of MySQL Version 3.21 under Windows, the above command will fail with an error: parse error near 'SET password'. The solution for this is to download and upgrade to the latest MySQL version, which is now freely available.

With the current MySQL versions you can easily add new users and change privileges with GRANT and REVOKE commands. See section 4.3.1 GRANT and REVOKE Syntax.

2.6.2.4 Connecting to a Remote MySQL from Windows with SSH

Here is a note about how to connect to get a secure connection to remote MySQL server with SSH (by David Carlson dcarlson@mplcomm.com):

You should now have an ODBC connection to MySQL, encrypted using SSH.

2.6.2.5 Splitting Data Across Different Disks on Windows

Beginning with MySQL Version 3.23.16, the mysqld-max and mysql-max-nt servers in the MySQL distribution are compiled with the -DUSE_SYMDIR option. This allows you to put a database on different disk by adding a symbolic link to it (in a manner similar to the way that symbolic links work on Unix).

On Windows, you make a symbolic link to a database by creating a file that contains the path to the destination directory and saving this in the `mysql_data' directory under the filename `database.sym'. Note that the symbolic link will be used only if the directory `mysql_data_dir\database' doesn't exist.

For example, if the MySQL data directory is `C:\mysql\data' and you want to have database foo located at `D:\data\foo', you should create the file `C:\mysql\data\foo.sym' that contains the text D:\data\foo\. After that, all tables created in the database foo will be created in `D:\data\foo'.

Note that because of the speed penalty you get when opening every table, we have not enabled this by default even if you have compiled MySQL with support for this. To enable symlinks you should put in your `my.cnf' or `my.ini' file the following entry:

[mysqld]
use-symbolic-links

In MySQL 4.0 we will enable symlinks by default. Then you should instead use the skip-symlink option if you want to disable this.

2.6.2.6 Compiling MySQL Clients on Windows

In your source files, you should include `windows.h' before you include `mysql.h':

#if defined(_WIN32) || defined(_WIN64)
#include <windows.h>
#endif
#include <mysql.h>

You can either link your code with the dynamic `libmysql.lib' library, which is just a wrapper to load in `libmysql.dll' on demand, or link with the static `mysqlclient.lib' library.

Note that as the mysqlclient libraries are compiled as threaded libraries, you should also compile your code to be multi-threaded!

2.6.2.7 MySQL-Windows Compared to Unix MySQL

MySQL-Windows has by now proven itself to be very stable. This version of MySQL has the same features as the corresponding Unix version with the following exceptions:

Windows 95 and threads
Windows 95 leaks about 200 bytes of main memory for each thread creation. Each connection in MySQL creates a new thread, so you shouldn't run mysqld for an extended time on Windows 95 if your server handles many connections! Other versions of Windows don't suffer from this bug.
Concurrent reads
MySQL depends on the pread() and pwrite() calls to be able to mix INSERT and SELECT. Currently we use mutexes to emulate pread()/pwrite(). We will, in the long run, replace the file level interface with a virtual interface so that we can use the readfile()/writefile() interface on NT/2000/XP to get more speed. The current implementation limits the number of open files MySQL can use to 1024, which means that you will not be able to run as many concurrent threads on NT/2000/XP as on Unix.
Blocking read
MySQL uses a blocking read for each connection. This means that: We plan to fix this problem when our Windows developers have figured out a nice workaround.
DROP DATABASE
You can't drop a database that is in use by some thread.
Killing MySQL from the task manager
You can't kill MySQL from the task manager or with the shutdown utility in Windows 95. You must take it down with mysqladmin shutdown.
Case-insensitive names
Filenames are case-insensitive on Windows, so database and table names are also case-insensitive in MySQL for Windows. The only restriction is that database and table names must be specified using the same case throughout a given statement. See section 6.1.3 Case Sensitivity in Names.
The `\' directory character
Pathname components in Windows 95 are separated by the `\' character, which is also the escape character in MySQL. If you are using LOAD DATA INFILE or SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE, you must double the `\' character:
mysql> LOAD DATA INFILE "C:\\tmp\\skr.txt" INTO TABLE skr;
mysql> SELECT * INTO OUTFILE 'C:\\tmp\\skr.txt' FROM skr;
Alternatively, use Unix style filenames with `/' characters:
mysql> LOAD DATA INFILE "C:/tmp/skr.txt" INTO TABLE skr;
mysql> SELECT * INTO OUTFILE 'C:/tmp/skr.txt' FROM skr;
Can't open named pipe error
If you use a MySQL 3.22 version on NT with the newest mysql-clients you will get the following error:
error 2017: can't open named pipe to host: . pipe...
This is because the release version of MySQL uses named pipes on NT by default. You can avoid this error by using the --host=localhost option to the new MySQL clients or create an option file `C:\my.cnf' that contains the following information:
[client]
host = localhost
Starting from 3.23.50, named pipes are only enabled if mysqld is started with --enable-named-pipe.
Access denied for user error
If you get the error Access denied for user: 'some-user@unknown' to database 'mysql' when accessing a MySQL server on the same machine, this means that MySQL can't resolve your host name properly. To fix this, you should create a file `\windows\hosts' with the following information:
127.0.0.1       localhost
ALTER TABLE
While you are executing an ALTER TABLE statement, the table is locked from usage by other threads. This has to do with the fact that on Windows, you can't delete a file that is in use by another threads. (In the future, we may find some way to work around this problem.)
DROP TABLE on a table that is in use by a MERGE table will not work on Windows because the MERGE handler does the table mapping hidden from the upper layer of MySQL. Because Windows doesn't allow you to drop files that are open, you first must flush all MERGE tables (with FLUSH TABLES) or drop the MERGE table before dropping the table. We will fix this at the same time we introduce VIEWs.
DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY directives in CREATE TABLE is ignored on Windows, because Windows doesn't support symbolic links.

Here are some open issues for anyone who might want to help us with the Windows release:

Other Windows-specific issues are described in the `README' file that comes with the MySQL-Windows distribution.

2.6.3 Solaris Notes

On Solaris, you may run into trouble even before you get the MySQL distribution unpacked! Solaris tar can't handle long file names, so you may see an error like this when you unpack MySQL:

x mysql-3.22.12-beta/bench/Results/ATIS-mysql_odbc-NT_4.0-cmp-db2,\
informix,ms-sql,mysql,oracle,solid,sybase, 0 bytes, 0 tape blocks
tar: directory checksum error

In this case, you must use GNU tar (gtar) to unpack the distribution. You can find a precompiled copy for Solaris at http://www.mysql.com/downloads/os-solaris.html.

Sun native threads work only on Solaris 2.5 and higher. For Version 2.4 and earlier, MySQL will automatically use MIT-pthreads. See section 2.3.6 MIT-pthreads Notes.

If you get the following error from configure:

checking for restartable system calls... configure: error can not run test
programs while cross compiling

This means that you have something wrong with your compiler installation! In this case you should upgrade your compiler to a newer version. You may also be able to solve this problem by inserting the following row into the `config.cache' file:

ac_cv_sys_restartable_syscalls=${ac_cv_sys_restartable_syscalls='no'}

If you are using Solaris on a SPARC, the recommended compiler is gcc 2.95.2. You can find this at http://gcc.gnu.org/. Note that egcs 1.1.1 and gcc 2.8.1 don't work reliably on SPARC!

The recommended configure line when using gcc 2.95.2 is:

CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3" \
CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O3 -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-low-memory --enable-assembler

If you have an UltraSPARC, you can get 4% more performance by adding "-mcpu=v8 -Wa,-xarch=v8plusa" to CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.

If you have Sun's Forte 5.0 (or newer) compiler, you can run configure like this:

CC=cc CFLAGS="-Xa -fast -native -xstrconst -mt" \
CXX=CC CXXFLAGS="-noex -mt" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler

You can create a 64 bit binary with:

CC=cc CFLAGS="-Xa -fast -native -xstrconst -mt -xarch=v9" \
CXX=CC CXXFLAGS="-noex -mt -xarch=v9" ASFLAGS="-xarch=v9" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler

In the MySQL benchmarks, we got a 4% speedup on an UltraSPARC when using Forte 5.0 in 32 bit mode compared to using gcc 3.2 with -mcpu flags.

If you create a 64 bit binary, it's 4 % slower than the 32 bit binary, but mysqld can instead handle more treads and memory.

If you get a problem with fdatasync or sched_yield, you can fix this by adding LIBS=-lrt to the configure line

The following paragraph is only relevant for older compilers than WorkShop 5.3:

You may also have to edit the configure script to change this line:

#if !defined(__STDC__) || __STDC__ != 1

to this:

#if !defined(__STDC__)

If you turn on __STDC__ with the -Xc option, the Sun compiler can't compile with the Solaris `pthread.h' header file. This is a Sun bug (broken compiler or broken include file).

If mysqld issues the error message shown here when you run it, you have tried to compile MySQL with the Sun compiler without enabling the multi-thread option (-mt):

libc internal error: _rmutex_unlock: rmutex not held

Add -mt to CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS and try again.

If you are using the SFW version of gcc (which comes with Solaris 8), you must add `/opt/sfw/lib' to the environment variable LD_LIBRARY_PATH before running configure.

If you are using the gcc available from sunfreeware.com, you may have many problems. You should recompile gcc and GNU binutils on the machine you will be running them from to avoid any problems.

If you get the following error when compiling MySQL with gcc, it means that your gcc is not configured for your version of Solaris:

shell> gcc -O3 -g -O2 -DDBUG_OFF  -o thr_alarm ...
./thr_alarm.c: In function `signal_hand':
./thr_alarm.c:556: too many arguments to function `sigwait'

The proper thing to do in this case is to get the newest version of gcc and compile it with your current gcc compiler! At least for Solaris 2.5, almost all binary versions of gcc have old, unusable include files that will break all programs that use threads (and possibly other programs)!

Solaris doesn't provide static versions of all system libraries (libpthreads and libdl), so you can't compile MySQL with --static. If you try to do so, you will get the error:

ld: fatal: library -ldl: not found

or

undefined reference to `dlopen'

or

cannot find -lrt

If too many processes try to connect very rapidly to mysqld, you will see this error in the MySQL log:

Error in accept: Protocol error

You might try starting the server with the --set-variable back_log=50 option as a workaround for this. Please note that --set-variable is deprecated since MySQL 4.0, just use --back_log=50 on its own. See section 4.1.1 mysqld Command-line Options.

If you are linking your own MySQL client, you might get the following error when you try to execute it:

ld.so.1: ./my: fatal: libmysqlclient.so.#:
open failed: No such file or directory

The problem can be avoided by one of the following methods:

If you have problems with configure trying to link with -lz and you don't have zlib installed, you have two options:

If you are using gcc and have problems with loading UDF functions into MySQL, try adding -lgcc to the link line for the UDF function.

If you would like MySQL to start automatically, you can copy `support-files/mysql.server' to `/etc/init.d' and create a symbolic link to it named `/etc/rc3.d/S99mysql.server'.

As Solaris doesn't support core files for setuid() applications, you can't get a core file from mysqld if you are using the --user option.

2.6.3.1 Solaris 2.7/2.8 Notes

You can normally use a Solaris 2.6 binary on Solaris 2.7 and 2.8. Most of the Solaris 2.6 issues also apply for Solaris 2.7 and 2.8.

Note that MySQL Version 3.23.4 and above should be able to autodetect new versions of Solaris and enable workarounds for the following problems!

Solaris 2.7 / 2.8 has some bugs in the include files. You may see the following error when you use gcc:

/usr/include/widec.h:42: warning: `getwc' redefined
/usr/include/wchar.h:326: warning: this is the location of the previous
definition

If this occurs, you can do the following to fix the problem:

Copy /usr/include/widec.h to .../lib/gcc-lib/os/gcc-version/include and change line 41 from:

#if     !defined(lint) && !defined(__lint)

to

#if     !defined(lint) && !defined(__lint) && !defined(getwc)

Alternatively, you can edit `/usr/include/widec.h' directly. Either way, after you make the fix, you should remove `config.cache' and run configure again!

If you get errors like this when you run make, it's because configure didn't detect the `curses.h' file (probably because of the error in `/usr/include/widec.h'):

In file included from mysql.cc:50:
/usr/include/term.h:1060: syntax error before `,'
/usr/include/term.h:1081: syntax error before `;'

The solution to this is to do one of the following:

If you get a problem that your linker can't find -lz when linking your client program, the problem is probably that your `libz.so' file is installed in `/usr/local/lib'. You can fix this by one of the following methods:

2.6.3.2 Solaris x86 Notes

On Solaris 2.8 on x86, mysqld will core dump if you run 'strip' in.

If you are using gcc or egcs on Solaris x86 and you experience problems with core dumps under load, you should use the following configure command:

CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fomit-frame-pointer -DHAVE_CURSES_H" \
CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fomit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions \
-fno-rtti -DHAVE_CURSES_H" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql

This will avoid problems with the libstdc++ library and with C++ exceptions.

If this doesn't help, you should compile a debug version and run it with a trace file or under gdb. See section E.1.3 Debugging mysqld under gdb.

2.6.4 BSD Notes

This section provides information for the various BSD flavours, as well as specific versions within those.

2.6.4.1 FreeBSD Notes

FreeBSD 3.x is recommended for running MySQL since the thread package is much more integrated.

The easiest and therefore the preferred way to install is to use the mysql-server and mysql-client ports available on http://www.freebsd.org/.

Using these gives you:

It is recommended you use MIT-pthreads on FreeBSD 2.x and native threads on Versions 3 and up. It is possible to run with native threads on some late 2.2.x versions but you may encounter problems shutting down mysqld.

The MySQL `Makefile's require GNU make (gmake) to work. If you want to compile MySQL you need to install GNU make first.

Be sure to have your name resolver setup correct. Otherwise, you may experience resolver delays or failures when connecting to mysqld.

Make sure that the localhost entry in the `/etc/hosts' file is correct (otherwise, you will have problems connecting to the database). The `/etc/hosts' file should start with a line:

127.0.0.1       localhost localhost.your.domain

The recommended way to compile and install MySQL on FreeBSD with gcc (2.95.2 and up) is:

CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O2 -fno-strength-reduce" \
CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O2 -fno-rtti -fno-exceptions -felide-constructors \
-fno-strength-reduce" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-assembler
gmake
gmake install
./scripts/mysql_install_db
cd /usr/local/mysql
./bin/mysqld_safe &

If you notice that configure will use MIT-pthreads, you should read the MIT-pthreads notes. See section 2.3.6 MIT-pthreads Notes.

If you get an error from make install that it can't find `/usr/include/pthreads', configure didn't detect that you need MIT-pthreads. This is fixed by executing these commands:

shell> rm config.cache
shell> ./configure --with-mit-threads

FreeBSD is also known to have a very low default file handle limit. See section A.2.16 File Not Found. Uncomment the ulimit -n section in safe_mysqld or raise the limits for the mysqld user in /etc/login.conf (and rebuild it with cap_mkdb /etc/login.conf). Also be sure you set the appropriate class for this user in the password file if you are not using the default (use: chpass mysqld-user-name). See section 4.7.2 safe_mysqld, The Wrapper Around mysqld.

If you have a lot of memory you should consider rebuilding the kernel to allow MySQL to take more than 512M of RAM. Take a look at option MAXDSIZ in the LINT config file for more info.

If you get problems with the current date in MySQL, setting the TZ variable will probably help. See section F Environment Variables.

To get a secure and stable system you should only use FreeBSD kernels that are marked -RELEASE.

2.6.4.2 NetBSD notes

To compile on NetBSD you need GNU make. Otherwise, the compile will crash when make tries to run lint on C++ files.

2.6.4.3 OpenBSD 2.5 Notes

On OpenBSD Version 2.5, you can compile MySQL with native threads with the following options:

CFLAGS=-pthread CXXFLAGS=-pthread ./configure --with-mit-threads=no

2.6.4.4 OpenBSD 2.8 Notes

Our users have reported that OpenBSD 2.8 has a threading bug which causes problems with MySQL. The OpenBSD Developers have fixed the problem, but as of January 25th, 2001, it's only available in the ``-current'' branch. The symptoms of this threading bug are: slow response, high load, high CPU usage, and crashes.

If you get an error like Error in accept:: Bad file descriptor or error 9 when trying to open tables or directories, the problem is probably that you haven't allocated enough file descriptors for MySQL.

In this case try starting safe_mysqld as root with the following options:

--user=mysql --open-files-limit=2048

2.6.4.5 BSD/OS Version 2.x Notes

If you get the following error when compiling MySQL, your ulimit value for virtual memory is too low:

item_func.h: In method `Item_func_ge::Item_func_ge(const Item_func_ge &)':
item_func.h:28: virtual memory exhausted
make[2]: *** [item_func.o] Error 1

Try using ulimit -v 80000 and run make again. If this doesn't work and you are using bash, try switching to csh or sh; some BSDI users have reported problems with bash and ulimit.

If you are using gcc, you may also use have to use the --with-low-memory flag for configure to be able to compile `sql_yacc.cc'.

If you get problems with the current date in MySQL, setting the TZ variable will probably help. See section F Environment Variables.

2.6.4.6 BSD/OS Version 3.x Notes

Upgrade to BSD/OS Version 3.1. If that is not possible, install BSDIpatch M300-038.

Use the following command when configuring MySQL:

shell> env CXX=shlicc++ CC=shlicc2 \
       ./configure \
           --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
           --localstatedir=/var/mysql \
           --without-perl \
           --with-unix-socket-path=/var/mysql/mysql.sock

The following is also known to work:

shell> env CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 \
       ./configure \
           --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
           --with-unix-socket-path=/var/mysql/mysql.sock

You can change the directory locations if you wish, or just use the defaults by not specifying any locations.

If you have problems with performance under heavy load, try using the --skip-thread-priority option to mysqld! This will run all threads with the same priority; on BSDI Version 3.1, this gives better performance (at least until BSDI fixes their thread scheduler).

If you get the error virtual memory exhausted while compiling, you should try using ulimit -v 80000 and run make again. If this doesn't work and you are using bash, try switching to csh or sh; some BSDI users have reported problems with bash and ulimit.

2.6.4.7 BSD/OS Version 4.x Notes

BSDI Version 4.x has some thread-related bugs. If you want to use MySQL on this, you should install all thread-related patches. At least M400-023 should be installed.

On some BSDI Version 4.x systems, you may get problems with shared libraries. The symptom is that you can't execute any client programs, for example, mysqladmin. In this case you need to reconfigure not to use shared libraries with the --disable-shared option to configure.

Some customers have had problems on BSDI 4.0.1 that the mysqld binary after a while can't open tables. This is because some library/system related bug causes mysqld to change current directory without asking for this!

The fix is to either upgrade to 3.23.34 or after running configure remove the line #define HAVE_REALPATH from config.h before running make.

Note that the above means that you can't symbolic link a database directories to another database directory or symbolic link a table to another database on BSDI! (Making a symbolic link to another disk is okay).

2.6.5 Mac OS X Notes

2.6.5.1 Mac OS X 10.x

MySQL should work without any problems on Mac OS X 10.x (Darwin). You don't need the pthread patches for this OS!

This also applies to Mac OS X 10.x Server. Compiling for the Server platform is the same as for the client version of Mac OS X. However please note that MySQL comes preinstalled on the Server!

See section 2.1.3 Installing MySQL on Mac OS X.

2.6.5.2 Mac OS X Server 1.2 (Rhapsody)

Before trying to configure MySQL on Mac OS X server you must first install the pthread package from http://www.prnet.de/RegEx/mysql.html.

Our binary for Mac OS X is compiled on Darwin 6.3 with the following configure line:

CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer" CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-O3 -fno-omit-frame-pointer -felide-constructors \
-fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
--with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client \
--enable-local-infile --disable-shared

You might want to also add aliases to your shell's resource file to access mysql and mysqladmin from the command-line:

alias mysql '/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql'
alias mysqladmin '/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin'

Alternatively, you could simply add /usr/local/mysql/bin to your PATH environment variable, e.g. by adding the following to `$HOME/.tcshrc':

setenv PATH $PATH:/usr/local/bin

2.6.6 Other Unix Notes

2.6.6.1 HP-UX Notes for Binary Distributions

Some of the binary distributions of MySQL for HP-UX are distributed as an HP depot file and as a tar file. To use the depot file you must be running at least HP-UX 10.x to have access to HP's software depot tools.

The HP version of MySQL was compiled on an HP 9000/8xx server under HP-UX 10.20, and uses MIT-pthreads. It is known to work well under this configuration. MySQL Version 3.22.26 and newer can also be built with HP's native thread package.

Other configurations that may work:

The following configurations almost definitely won't work:

To install the distribution, use one of the commands here, where /path/to/depot is the full pathname of the depot file:

The depot places binaries and libraries in `/opt/mysql' and data in `/var/opt/mysql'. The depot also creates the appropriate entries in `/etc/init.d' and `/etc/rc2.d' to start the server automatically at boot time. Obviously, this entails being root to install.

To install the HP-UX tar.gz distribution, you must have a copy of GNU tar.

2.6.6.2 HP-UX Version 10.20 Notes

There are a couple of small problems when compiling MySQL on HP-UX. We recommend that you use gcc instead of the HP-UX native compiler, because gcc produces better code!

We recommend using gcc 2.95 on HP-UX. Don't use high optimisation flags (like -O6) as this may not be safe on HP-UX.

The following configure line should work with gcc 2.95:

CFLAGS="-I/opt/dce/include -fpic" \
CXXFLAGS="-I/opt/dce/include -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions \
-fno-rtti" CXX=gcc ./configure --with-pthread \
--with-named-thread-libs='-ldce' --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --disable-shared

The following configure line should work with gcc 3.1:

CFLAGS="-DHPUX -I/opt/dce/include -O3 -fPIC" CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-DHPUX -I/opt/dce/include -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions \
-fno-rtti -O3 -fPIC" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
--with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client \
--enable-local-infile  --with-pthread \
--with-named-thread-libs=-ldce --with-lib-ccflags=-fPIC
--disable-shared

2.6.6.3 HP-UX Version 11.x Notes

For HP-UX Version 11.x we recommend MySQL Version 3.23.15 or later.

Because of some critical bugs in the standard HP-UX libraries, you should install the following patches before trying to run MySQL on HP-UX 11.0:

PHKL_22840 Streams cumulative
PHNE_22397 ARPA cumulative

This will solve the problem of getting EWOULDBLOCK from recv() and EBADF from accept() in threaded applications.

If you are using gcc 2.95.1 on an unpatched HP-UX 11.x system, you will get the error:

In file included from /usr/include/unistd.h:11,
                 from ../include/global.h:125,
                 from mysql_priv.h:15,
                 from item.cc:19:
/usr/include/sys/unistd.h:184: declaration of C function ...
/usr/include/sys/pthread.h:440: previous declaration ...
In file included from item.h:306,
                 from mysql_priv.h:158,
                 from item.cc:19:

The problem is that HP-UX doesn't define pthreads_atfork() consistently. It has conflicting prototypes in `/usr/include/sys/unistd.h':184 and `/usr/include/sys/pthread.h':440 (details below).

One solution is to copy `/usr/include/sys/unistd.h' into `mysql/include' and edit `unistd.h' and change it to match the definition in `pthread.h'. Here's the diff:

183,184c183,184
<      extern int pthread_atfork(void (*prepare)(), void (*parent)(),
<                                                void (*child)());
---
>      extern int pthread_atfork(void (*prepare)(void), void (*parent)(void),
>                                                void (*child)(void));

After this, the following configure line should work:

CFLAGS="-fomit-frame-pointer -O3 -fpic" CXX=gcc \
CXXFLAGS="-felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti -O3" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --disable-shared

If you are using MySQL 4.0.5 with the HP-UX compiler you can use: (tested with cc B.11.11.04):

CC=cc CXX=aCC CFLAGS=+DD64 CXXFLAGS=+DD64 ./configure --with-extra-character-set=complex

You can ignore any errors of the following type:

aCC: warning 901: unknown option: `-3': use +help for online documentation

If you get the following error from configure

checking for cc option to accept ANSI C... no
configure: error: MySQL requires a ANSI C compiler (and a C++ compiler).
Try gcc. See the Installation chapter in the Reference Manual.

Check that you don't have the path to the K&R compiler before the path to the HP-UX C and C++ compiler.

Another reason for not beeing able to compile is that you didn't define the +DD64 flags above.

2.6.6.4 IBM-AIX notes

Automatic detection of xlC is missing from Autoconf, so a configure command something like this is needed when compiling MySQL (This example uses the IBM compiler):

export CC="xlc_r -ma -O3 -qstrict -qoptimize=3 -qmaxmem=8192 "
export CXX="xlC_r -ma -O3 -qstrict -qoptimize=3 -qmaxmem=8192"
export CFLAGS="-I /usr/local/include"
export LDFLAGS="-L /usr/local/lib"
export CPPFLAGS=$CFLAGS
export CXXFLAGS=$CFLAGS

./configure --prefix=/usr/local \
		--localstatedir=/var/mysql \
		--sysconfdir=/etc/mysql \
		--sbindir='/usr/local/bin' \
		--libexecdir='/usr/local/bin' \
		--enable-thread-safe-client \
		--enable-large-files

Above are the options used to compile the MySQL distribution that can be found at http://www-frec.bull.com/.

If you change the -O3 to -O2 in the above configure line, you must also remove the -qstrict option (this is a limitation in the IBM C compiler).

If you are using gcc or egcs to compile MySQL, you must use the -fno-exceptions flag, as the exception handling in gcc/egcs is not thread-safe! (This is tested with egcs 1.1.) There are also some known problems with IBM's assembler, which may cause it to generate bad code when used with gcc.

We recommend the following configure line with egcs and gcc 2.95 on AIX:

CC="gcc -pipe -mcpu=power -Wa,-many" \
CXX="gcc -pipe -mcpu=power -Wa,-many" \
CXXFLAGS="-felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-low-memory

The -Wa,-many is necessary for the compile to be successful. IBM is aware of this problem but is in to hurry to fix it because of the workaround available. We don't know if the -fno-exceptions is required with gcc 2.95, but as MySQL doesn't use exceptions and the above option generates faster code, we recommend that you should always use this option with egcs / gcc.

If you get a problem with assembler code try changing the -mcpu=xxx to match your CPU. Typically power2, power, or powerpc may need to be used, alternatively you might need to use 604 or 604e. I'm not positive but I would think using "power" would likely be safe most of the time, even on a power2 machine.

If you don't know what your CPU is then do a "uname -m", this will give you back a string that looks like "000514676700", with a format of xxyyyyyymmss where xx and ss are always 0's, yyyyyy is a unique system id and mm is the id of the CPU Planar. A chart of these values can be found at http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/doc_link/en_US/a_doc_lib/cmds/aixcmds5/uname.htm. This will give you a machine type and a machine model you can use to determine what type of CPU you have.

If you have problems with signals (MySQL dies unexpectedly under high load) you may have found an OS bug with threads and signals. In this case you can tell MySQL not to use signals by configuring with:

shell> CFLAGS=-DDONT_USE_THR_ALARM CXX=gcc \
       CXXFLAGS="-felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti \
       -DDONT_USE_THR_ALARM" \
       ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-debug --with-low-memory

This doesn't affect the performance of MySQL, but has the side effect that you can't kill clients that are ``sleeping'' on a connection with mysqladmin kill or mysqladmin shutdown. Instead, the client will die when it issues its next command.

On some versions of AIX, linking with libbind.a makes getservbyname core dump. This is an AIX bug and should be reported to IBM.

For AIX 4.2.1 and gcc you have to do the following changes.

After configuring, edit `config.h' and `include/my_config.h' and change the line that says

#define HAVE_SNPRINTF 1

to

#undef HAVE_SNPRINTF

And finally, in `mysqld.cc' you need to add a prototype for initgoups.

#ifdef _AIX41
extern "C" int initgroups(const char *,int);
#endif

If you need to allocate a lot of memory to the mysqld process, it's not enough to just set 'ulimit -d unlimited'. You may also have to set in mysqld_safe something like:

export LDR_CNTRL='MAXDATA=0x80000000'

You can find more about using a lot of memory at: http://publib16.boulder.ibm.com/pseries/en_US/aixprggd/genprogc/lrg_prg_support.htm.

2.6.6.5 SunOS 4 Notes

On SunOS 4, MIT-pthreads is needed to compile MySQL, which in turn means you will need GNU make.

Some SunOS 4 systems have problems with dynamic libraries and libtool. You can use the following configure line to avoid this problem:

shell> ./configure --disable-shared --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static

When compiling readline, you may get warnings about duplicate defines. These may be ignored.

When compiling mysqld, there will be some implicit declaration of function warnings. These may be ignored.

2.6.6.6 Alpha-DEC-UNIX Notes (Tru64)

If you are using egcs 1.1.2 on Digital Unix, you should upgrade to gcc 2.95.2, as egcs on DEC has some serious bugs!

When compiling threaded programs under Digital Unix, the documentation recommends using the -pthread option for cc and cxx and the libraries -lmach -lexc (in addition to -lpthread). You should run configure something like this:

CC="cc -pthread" CXX="cxx -pthread -O" \
./configure --with-named-thread-libs="-lpthread -lmach -lexc -lc"

When compiling mysqld, you may see a couple of warnings like this:

mysqld.cc: In function void handle_connections()':
mysqld.cc:626: passing long unsigned int *' as argument 3 of
accept(int,sockadddr *, int *)'

You can safely ignore these warnings. They occur because configure can detect only errors, not warnings.

If you start the server directly from the command-line, you may have problems with it dying when you log out. (When you log out, your outstanding processes receive a SIGHUP signal.) If so, try starting the server like this:

shell> nohup mysqld [options] &

nohup causes the command following it to ignore any SIGHUP signal sent from the terminal. Alternatively, start the server by running safe_mysqld, which invokes mysqld using nohup for you. See section 4.7.2 safe_mysqld, The Wrapper Around mysqld.

If you get a problem when compiling mysys/get_opt.c, just remove the line #define _NO_PROTO from the start of that file!

If you are using Compac's CC compiler, the following configure line should work:

CC="cc -pthread"
CFLAGS="-O4 -ansi_alias -ansi_args -fast -inline speed all -arch host"
CXX="cxx -pthread"
CXXFLAGS="-O4 -ansi_alias -ansi_args -fast -inline speed all -arch host \
-noexceptions -nortti"
export CC CFLAGS CXX CXXFLAGS
./configure \
--prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
--with-low-memory \
--enable-large-files \
--enable-shared=yes \
--with-named-thread-libs="-lpthread -lmach -lexc -lc"
gnumake

If you get a problem with libtool, when compiling with shared libraries as above, when linking mysql, you should be able to get around this by issuing:

cd mysql
/bin/sh ../libtool --mode=link cxx -pthread  -O3 -DDBUG_OFF \
-O4 -ansi_alias -ansi_args -fast -inline speed \
-speculate all \ -arch host  -DUNDEF_HAVE_GETHOSTBYNAME_R \
-o mysql  mysql.o readline.o sql_string.o completion_hash.o \
../readline/libreadline.a -lcurses \
../libmysql/.libs/libmysqlclient.so  -lm
cd ..
gnumake
gnumake install
scripts/mysql_install_db

2.6.6.7 Alpha-DEC-OSF/1 Notes

If you have problems compiling and have DEC CC and gcc installed, try running configure like this:

CC=cc CFLAGS=-O CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql

If you get problems with the `c_asm.h' file, you can create and use a 'dummy' `c_asm.h' file with:

touch include/c_asm.h
CC=gcc CFLAGS=-I./include \
CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql

Note that the following problems with the ld program can be fixed by downloading the latest DEC (Compaq) patch kit from: http://ftp.support.compaq.com/public/unix/.

On OSF/1 V4.0D and compiler "DEC C V5.6-071 on Digital Unix V4.0 (Rev. 878)" the compiler had some strange behaviour (undefined asm symbols). /bin/ld also appears to be broken (problems with _exit undefined errors occuring while linking mysqld). On this system, we have managed to compile MySQL with the following configure line, after replacing /bin/ld with the version from OSF 4.0C:

CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql

With the Digital compiler "C++ V6.1-029", the following should work:

CC=cc -pthread
CFLAGS=-O4 -ansi_alias -ansi_args -fast -inline speed -speculate all \
       -arch host
CXX=cxx -pthread
CXXFLAGS=-O4 -ansi_alias -ansi_args -fast -inline speed -speculate all \
          -arch host -noexceptions -nortti
export CC CFLAGS CXX CXXFLAGS
./configure --prefix=/usr/mysql/mysql --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static \
            --disable-shared --with-named-thread-libs="-lmach -lexc -lc"

In some versions of OSF/1, the alloca() function is broken. Fix this by removing the line in `config.h' that defines 'HAVE_ALLOCA'.

The alloca() function also may have an incorrect prototype in /usr/include/alloca.h. This warning resulting from this can be ignored.

configure will use the following thread libraries automatically: --with-named-thread-libs="-lpthread -lmach -lexc -lc".

When using gcc, you can also try running configure like this:

shell> CFLAGS=-D_PTHREAD_USE_D4 CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 ./configure ...

If you have problems with signals (MySQL dies unexpectedly under high load), you may have found an OS bug with threads and signals. In this case you can tell MySQL not to use signals by configuring with:

shell> CFLAGS=-DDONT_USE_THR_ALARM \
       CXXFLAGS=-DDONT_USE_THR_ALARM \
       ./configure ...

This doesn't affect the performance of MySQL, but has the side effect that you can't kill clients that are ``sleeping'' on a connection with mysqladmin kill or mysqladmin shutdown. Instead, the client will die when it issues its next command.

With gcc 2.95.2, you will probably run into the following compile error:

sql_acl.cc:1456: Internal compiler error in `scan_region', at except.c:2566
Please submit a full bug report.

To fix this you should change to the sql directory and do a ``cut and paste'' of the last gcc line, but change -O3 to -O0 (or add -O0 immediately after gcc if you don't have any -O option on your compile line). After this is done you can just change back to the top-level directly and run make again.

2.6.6.8 SGI Irix Notes

If you are using Irix Version 6.5.3 or newer mysqld will only be able to create threads if you run it as a user with CAP_SCHED_MGT privileges (like root) or give the mysqld server this privilege with the following shell command:

shell> chcap "CAP_SCHED_MGT+epi" /opt/mysql/libexec/mysqld

You may have to undefine some things in `config.h' after running configure and before compiling.

In some Irix implementations, the alloca() function is broken. If the mysqld server dies on some SELECT statements, remove the lines from `config.h' that define HAVE_ALLOC and HAVE_ALLOCA_H. If mysqladmin create doesn't work, remove the line from `config.h' that defines HAVE_READDIR_R. You may have to remove the HAVE_TERM_H line as well.

SGI recommends that you install all of the patches on this page as a set: http://support.sgi.com/surfzone/patches/patchset/6.2_indigo.rps.html

At the very minimum, you should install the latest kernel rollup, the latest rld rollup, and the latest libc rollup.

You definitely need all the POSIX patches on this page, for pthreads support:

http://support.sgi.com/surfzone/patches/patchset/6.2_posix.rps.html

If you get the something like the following error when compiling `mysql.cc':

"/usr/include/curses.h", line 82: error(1084): invalid combination of type

Type the following in the top-level directory of your MySQL source tree:

shell> extra/replace bool curses_bool < /usr/include/curses.h \
> include/curses.h
shell> make

There have also been reports of scheduling problems. If only one thread is running, things go slow. Avoid this by starting another client. This may lead to a 2-to-10-fold increase in execution speed thereafter for the other thread. This is a poorly understood problem with Irix threads; you may have to improvise to find solutions until this can be fixed.

If you are compiling with gcc, you can use the following configure command:

CC=gcc CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS=-O3 \
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --enable-thread-safe-client \
--with-named-thread-libs=-lpthread

On Irix 6.5.11 with native Irix C and C++ compilers ver. 7.3.1.2, the following is reported to work

CC=cc CXX=CC CFLAGS='-O3 -n32 -TARG:platform=IP22 -I/usr/local/include \
-L/usr/local/lib' CXXFLAGS='-O3 -n32 -TARG:platform=IP22 \
-I/usr/local/include -L/usr/local/lib' ./configure \
--prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-innodb --with-berkeley-db \
--with-libwrap=/usr/local \
--with-named-curses-libs=/usr/local/lib/libncurses.a

2.6.6.9 Caldera (SCO) Notes

The current port is tested only on a ``sco3.2v5.0.4'' and ``sco3.2v5.0.5'' system. There has also been a lot of progress on a port to ``sco 3.2v4.2''.

For the moment the recommended compiler on OpenServer is gcc 2.95.2. With this you should be able to compile MySQL with just:

CC=gcc CXX=gcc ./configure ... (options)
  1. For OpenServer 5.0.X you need to use gcc-2.95.2p1 or newer from the Skunkware. http://www.caldera.com/skunkware/ and choose browser OpenServer packages or by ftp to ftp2.caldera.com in the pub/skunkware/osr5/devtools/gcc directory.
  2. You need the port of GCC 2.5.x for this product and the Development system. They are required on this version of Caldera (SCO) Unix. You cannot just use the GCC Dev system.
  3. You should get the FSU Pthreads package and install it first. This can be found at http://www.cs.wustl.edu/~schmidt/ACE_wrappers/FSU-threads.tar.gz. You can also get a precompiled package from http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/SCO/FSU-threads-3.5c.tar.gz.
  4. FSU Pthreads can be compiled with Caldera (SCO) Unix 4.2 with tcpip. Or OpenServer 3.0 or Open Desktop 3.0 (OS 3.0 ODT 3.0), with the Caldera (SCO) Development System installed using a good port of GCC 2.5.x ODT or OS 3.0 you will need a good port of GCC 2.5.x There are a lot of problems without a good port. The port for this product requires the SCO Unix Development system. Without it, you are missing the libraries and the linker that is needed.
  5. To build FSU Pthreads on your system, do the following:
    1. Run ./configure in the `threads/src' directory and select the SCO OpenServer option. This command copies `Makefile.SCO5' to `Makefile'.
    2. Run make.
    3. To install in the default `/usr/include' directory, login as root, then cd to the `thread/src' directory, and run make install.
  6. Remember to use GNU make when making MySQL.
  7. If you don't start safe_mysqld as root, you probably will get only the default 110 open files per process. mysqld will write a note about this in the log file.
  8. With SCO 3.2V5.0.5, you should use FSU Pthreads version 3.5c or newer. You should also use gcc 2.95.2 or newer! The following configure command should work:
    shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --disable-shared
    
  9. With SCO 3.2V4.2, you should use FSU Pthreads version 3.5c or newer. The following configure command should work:
    shell> CFLAGS="-D_XOPEN_XPG4" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-D_XOPEN_XPG4" \
           ./configure \
               --prefix=/usr/local/mysql \
               --with-named-thread-libs="-lgthreads -lsocket -lgen -lgthreads" \
               --with-named-curses-libs="-lcurses"
    
    You may get some problems with some include files. In this case, you can find new SCO-specific include files at http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/SCO/SCO-3.2v4.2-includes.tar.gz. You should unpack this file in the `include' directory of your MySQL source tree.

Caldera (SCO) development notes:

If you want to install DBI on Caldera (SCO), you have to edit the `Makefile' in DBI-xxx and each subdirectory.

Note that the following assumes gcc 2.95.2 or newer:

OLD:                                  NEW:
CC = cc                               CC = gcc
CCCDLFLAGS = -KPIC -W1,-Bexport       CCCDLFLAGS = -fpic
CCDLFLAGS = -wl,-Bexport              CCDLFLAGS =

LD = ld                               LD = gcc -G -fpic
LDDLFLAGS = -G -L/usr/local/lib       LDDLFLAGS = -L/usr/local/lib
LDFLAGS = -belf -L/usr/local/lib      LDFLAGS = -L/usr/local/lib

LD = ld                               LD = gcc -G -fpic
OPTIMISE = -Od                        OPTIMISE = -O1

OLD:
CCCFLAGS = -belf -dy -w0 -U M_XENIX -DPERL_SCO5 -I/usr/local/include

NEW:
CCFLAGS = -U M_XENIX -DPERL_SCO5 -I/usr/local/include

This is because the Perl dynaloader will not load the DBI modules if they were compiled with icc or cc.

Perl works best when compiled with cc.

2.6.6.10 Caldera (SCO) Unixware Version 7.0 Notes

You must use a version of MySQL at least as recent as Version 3.22.13 because that version fixes some portability problems under Unixware.

We have been able to compile MySQL with the following configure command on Unixware Version 7.0.1:

CC=cc CXX=CC ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql

If you want to use gcc, you must use gcc 2.95.2 or newer.

Caldera provides libsocket.so.2 at ftp://stage.caldera.com/pub/security/tools for pre-OSR506 security fixes. Also, the telnetd fix at ftp://stage.caldera.com/pub/security/openserver/CSSA-2001-SCO.10/ as both libsocket.so.2 and libresolv.so.1 with instructions for installing on pre-OSR506 systems.

It's probably a good idea to install the above patches before trying to compile/use MySQL.

2.6.7 OS/2 Notes

MySQL uses quite a few open files. Because of this, you should add something like the following to your `CONFIG.SYS' file:

SET EMXOPT=-c -n -h1024

If you don't do this, you will probably run into the following error:

File 'xxxx' not found (Errcode: 24)

When using MySQL with OS/2 Warp 3, FixPack 29 or above is required. With OS/2 Warp 4, FixPack 4 or above is required. This is a requirement of the Pthreads library. MySQL must be installed in a partition that supports long filenames such as HPFS, FAT32, etc.

The `INSTALL.CMD' script must be run from OS/2's own `CMD.EXE' and may not work with replacement shells such as `4OS2.EXE'.

The `scripts/mysql-install-db' script has been renamed. It is now called `install.cmd' and is a REXX script, which will set up the default MySQL security settings and create the WorkPlace Shell icons for MySQL.

Dynamic module support is compiled in but not fully tested. Dynamic modules should be compiled using the Pthreads run-time library.

gcc -Zdll -Zmt -Zcrtdll=pthrdrtl -I../include -I../regex -I.. \
    -o example udf_example.cc -L../lib -lmysqlclient udf_example.def
mv example.dll example.udf

Note: Due to limitations in OS/2, UDF module name stems must not exceed 8 characters. Modules are stored in the `/mysql2/udf' directory; the safe-mysqld.cmd script will put this directory in the BEGINLIBPATH environment variable. When using UDF modules, specified extensions are ignored@-it is assumed to be `.udf'. For example, in Unix, the shared module might be named `example.so' and you would load a function from it like this:

mysql> CREATE FUNCTION metaphon RETURNS STRING SONAME "example.so";

Is OS/2, the module would be named `example.udf', but you would not specify the module extension:

mysql> CREATE FUNCTION metaphon RETURNS STRING SONAME "example";

2.6.8 BeOS Notes

We are really interested in getting MySQL to work on BeOS, but unfortunately we don't have any person who knows BeOS or has time to do a port.

We are interested in finding someone to do a port, and we will help them with any technical questions they may have while doing the port.

We have previously talked with some BeOS developers that have said that MySQL is 80% ported to BeOS, but we haven't heard from them in a while.

2.6.9 Novell NetWare Notes

We are really interested in getting MySQL to work on NetWare, but unfortunately we don't have any person who knows NetWare or has time to do a port.

We are interested in finding someone to do a port, and we will help them with any technical questions they may have while doing the port.

2.7 Perl Installation Comments

2.7.1 Installing Perl on Unix

Perl support for MySQL is provided by means of the DBI/DBD client interface. See section 8.2 MySQL Perl API. The Perl DBD/DBI client code requires Perl Version 5.004 or later. The interface will not work if you have an older version of Perl.

MySQL Perl support also requires that you've installed MySQL client programming support. If you installed MySQL from RPM files, client programs are in the client RPM, but client programming support is in the developer RPM. Make sure you've installed the latter RPM.

As of Version 3.22.8, Perl support is distributed separately from the main MySQL distribution. If you want to install Perl support, the files you will need can be obtained from http://www.mysql.com/downloads/api-dbi.html.

The Perl distributions are provided as compressed tar archives and have names like `MODULE-VERSION.tar.gz', where MODULE is the module name and VERSION is the version number. You should get the Data-Dumper, DBI, and Msql-Mysql-modules distributions and install them in that order. The installation procedure is shown here. The example shown is for the Data-Dumper module, but the procedure is the same for all three distributions:

  1. Unpack the distribution into the current directory:
    shell> gunzip < Data-Dumper-VERSION.tar.gz | tar xvf -
    
    This command creates a directory named `Data-Dumper-VERSION'.
  2. Change into the top-level directory of the unpacked distribution:
    shell> cd Data-Dumper-VERSION
    
  3. Build the distribution and compile everything:
    shell> perl Makefile.PL
    shell> make
    shell> make test
    shell> make install
    

The make test command is important because it verifies that the module is working. Note that when you run that command during the Msql-Mysql-modules installation to exercise the interface code, the MySQL server must be running or the test will fail.

It is a good idea to rebuild and reinstall the Msql-Mysql-modules distribution whenever you install a new release of MySQL, particularly if you notice symptoms such as all your DBI scripts dumping core after you upgrade MySQL.

If you don't have the right to install Perl modules in the system directory or if you to install local Perl modules, the following reference may help you:

http://www.iserver.com/support/contrib/perl5/modules.html

Look under the heading Installing New Modules that Require Locally Installed Modules.

2.7.2 Installing ActiveState Perl on Windows

To install the MySQL DBD module with ActiveState Perl on Windows, you should do the following:

The above should work at least with ActiveState Perl Version 5.6.

If you can't get the above to work, you should instead install the MyODBC driver and connect to MySQL server through ODBC:

use DBI;
$dbh= DBI->connect("DBI:ODBC:$dsn","$user","$password") ||
  die "Got error $DBI::errstr when connecting to $dsn\n";

2.7.3 Installing the MySQL Perl Distribution on Windows

The MySQL Perl distribution contains DBI, DBD:MySQL and DBD:ODBC.

2.7.4 Problems Using the Perl DBI/DBD Interface

If Perl reports that it can't find the `../mysql/mysql.so' module, then the problem is probably that Perl can't locate the shared library `libmysqlclient.so'.

You can fix this by any of the following methods:

If you get the following errors from DBD-mysql, you are probably using gcc (or using an old binary compiled with gcc):

/usr/bin/perl: can't resolve symbol '__moddi3'
/usr/bin/perl: can't resolve symbol '__divdi3'

Add -L/usr/lib/gcc-lib/... -lgcc to the link command when the `mysql.so' library gets built (check the output from make for `mysql.so' when you compile the Perl client). The -L option should specify the pathname of the directory where `libgcc.a' is located on your system.

Another cause of this problem may be that Perl and MySQL aren't both compiled with gcc. In this case, you can solve the mismatch by compiling both with gcc.

If you get the following error from Msql-Mysql-modules when you run the tests:

t/00base............install_driver(mysql) failed:
Can't load '../blib/arch/auto/DBD/mysql/mysql.so' for module DBD::mysql:
../blib/arch/auto/DBD/mysql/mysql.so: undefined symbol:
uncompress at /usr/lib/perl5/5.00503/i586-linux/DynaLoader.pm line 169.

it means that you need to include the compression library, -lz, to the link line. This can be doing the following change in the file `lib/DBD/mysql/Install.pm':

$sysliblist .= " -lm";

to

$sysliblist .= " -lm -lz";

After this, you must run 'make realclean' and then proceed with the installation from the beginning.

If you want to use the Perl module on a system that doesn't support dynamic linking (like Caldera/SCO) you can generate a static version of Perl that includes DBI and DBD-mysql. The way this works is that you generate a version of Perl with the DBI code linked in and install it on top of your current Perl. Then you use that to build a version of Perl that additionally has the DBD code linked in, and install that.

On Caldera (SCO), you must have the following environment variables set:

shell> LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/lib:/usr/lib:/usr/local/lib:/usr/progressive/lib
or
shell> LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/lib:/lib:/usr/local/lib:/usr/ccs/lib:\
/usr/progressive/lib:/usr/skunk/lib
shell> LIBPATH=/usr/lib:/lib:/usr/local/lib:/usr/ccs/lib:\
/usr/progressive/lib:/usr/skunk/lib
shell> MANPATH=scohelp:/usr/man:/usr/local1/man:/usr/local/man:\
/usr/skunk/man:

First, create a Perl that includes a statically linked DBI by running these commands in the directory where your DBI distribution is located:

shell> perl Makefile.PL -static -config
shell> make
shell> make install
shell> make perl

Then you must install the new Perl. The output of make perl will indicate the exact make command you will need to execute to perform the installation. On Caldera (SCO), this is make -f Makefile.aperl inst_perl MAP_TARGET=perl.

Next, use the just-created Perl to create another Perl that also includes a statically-linked DBD::mysql by running these commands in the directory where your Msql-Mysql-modules distribution is located:

shell> perl Makefile.PL -static -config
shell> make
shell> make install
shell> make perl

Finally, you should install this new Perl. Again, the output of make perl indicates the command to use.

3 Tutorial Introduction

This chapter provides a tutorial introduction to MySQL by showing how to use the mysql client program to create and use a simple database. mysql (sometimes referred to as the ``terminal monitor'' or just ``monitor'') is an interactive program that allows you to connect to a MySQL server, run queries, and view the results. mysql may also be used in batch mode: you place your queries in a file beforehand, then tell mysql to execute the contents of the file. Both ways of using mysql are covered here.

To see a list of options provided by mysql, invoke it with the --help option:

shell> mysql --help

This chapter assumes that mysql is installed on your machine and that a MySQL server is available to which you can connect. If this is not true, contact your MySQL administrator. (If you are the administrator, you will need to consult other sections of this manual.)

This chapter describes the entire process of setting up and using a database. If you are interested only in accessing an already-existing database, you may want to skip over the sections that describe how to create the database and the tables it contains.

Because this chapter is tutorial in nature, many details are necessarily left out. Consult the relevant sections of the manual for more information on the topics covered here.

3.1 Connecting to and Disconnecting from the Server

To connect to the server, you'll usually need to provide a MySQL user name when you invoke mysql and, most likely, a password. If the server runs on a machine other than the one where you log in, you'll also need to specify a hostname. Contact your administrator to find out what connection parameters you should use to connect (that is, what host, user name, and password to use). Once you know the proper parameters, you should be able to connect like this:

shell> mysql -h host -u user -p
Enter password: ********

The ******** represents your password; enter it when mysql displays the Enter password: prompt.

If that works, you should see some introductory information followed by a mysql> prompt:

shell> mysql -h host -u user -p
Enter password: ********
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 459 to server version: 3.22.20a-log

Type 'help' for help.

mysql>

The prompt tells you that mysql is ready for you to enter commands.

Some MySQL installations allow users to connect as the anonymous (unnamed) user to the server running on the local host. If this is the case on your machine, you should be able to connect to that server by invoking mysql without any options:

shell> mysql

After you have connected successfully, you can disconnect any time by typing QUIT at the mysql> prompt:

mysql> QUIT
Bye

You can also disconnect by pressing Control-D.

Most examples in the following sections assume you are connected to the server. They indicate this by the mysql> prompt.

3.2 Entering Queries

Make sure you are connected to the server, as discussed in the previous section. Doing so will not in itself select any database to work with, but that's okay. At this point, it's more important to find out a little about how to issue queries than to jump right in creating tables, loading data into them, and retrieving data from them. This section describes the basic principles of entering commands, using several queries you can try out to familiarise yourself with how mysql works.

Here's a simple command that asks the server to tell you its version number and the current date. Type it in as shown here following the mysql> prompt and press Enter:

mysql> SELECT VERSION(), CURRENT_DATE;
+--------------+--------------+
| VERSION()    | CURRENT_DATE |
+--------------+--------------+
| 3.22.20a-log | 1999-03-19   |
+--------------+--------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)
mysql>

This query illustrates several things about mysql:

Keywords may be entered in any lettercase. The following queries are equivalent:

mysql> SELECT VERSION(), CURRENT_DATE;
mysql> select version(), current_date;
mysql> SeLeCt vErSiOn(), current_DATE;

Here's another query. It demonstrates that you can use mysql as a simple calculator:

mysql> SELECT SIN(PI()/4), (4+1)*5;
+-------------+---------+
| SIN(PI()/4) | (4+1)*5 |
+-------------+---------+
|    0.707107 |      25 |
+-------------+---------+

The commands shown thus far have been relatively short, single-line statements. You can even enter multiple statements on a single line. Just end each one with a semicolon:

mysql> SELECT VERSION(); SELECT NOW();
+--------------+
| VERSION()    |
+--------------+
| 3.22.20a-log |
+--------------+

+---------------------+
| NOW()               |
+---------------------+
| 1999-03-19 00:15:33 |
+---------------------+

A command need not be given all on a single line, so lengthy commands that require several lines are not a problem. mysql determines where your statement ends by looking for the terminating semicolon, not by looking for the end of the input line. (In other words, mysql accepts free-format input: it collects input lines but does not execute them until it sees the semicolon.)

Here's a simple multiple-line statement:

mysql> SELECT
    -> USER()
    -> ,
    -> CURRENT_DATE;
+--------------------+--------------+
| USER()             | CURRENT_DATE |
+--------------------+--------------+
| joesmith@localhost | 1999-03-18   |
+--------------------+--------------+

In this example, notice how the prompt changes from mysql> to -> after you enter the first line of a multiple-line query. This is how mysql indicates that it hasn't seen a complete statement and is waiting for the rest. The prompt is your friend, because it provides valuable feedback. If you use that feedback, you will always be aware of what mysql is waiting for.

If you decide you don't want to execute a command that you are in the process of entering, cancel it by typing \c:

mysql> SELECT
    -> USER()
    -> \c
mysql>

Here, too, notice the prompt. It switches back to mysql> after you type \c, providing feedback to indicate that mysql is ready for a new command.

The following table shows each of the prompts you may see and summarises what they mean about the state that mysql is in:

Prompt Meaning
mysql> Ready for new command.
-> Waiting for next line of multiple-line command.
'> Waiting for next line, collecting a string that begins with a single quote (`'').
"> Waiting for next line, collecting a string that begins with a double quote (`"').

Multiple-line statements commonly occur by accident when you intend to issue a command on a single line, but forget the terminating semicolon. In this case, mysql waits for more input:

mysql> SELECT USER()
    ->

If this happens to you (you think you've entered a statement but the only response is a -> prompt), most likely mysql is waiting for the semicolon. If you don't notice what the prompt is telling you, you might sit there for a while before realising what you need to do. Enter a semicolon to complete the statement, and mysql will execute it:

mysql> SELECT USER()
    -> ;
+--------------------+
| USER()             |
+--------------------+
| joesmith@localhost |
+--------------------+

The '> and "> prompts occur during string collection. In MySQL, you can write strings surrounded by either `'' or `"' characters (for example, 'hello' or "goodbye"), and mysql lets you enter strings that span multiple lines. When you see a '> or "> prompt, it means that you've entered a line containing a string that begins with a `'' or `"' quote character, but have not yet entered the matching quote that terminates the string. That's fine if you really are entering a multiple-line string, but how likely is that? Not very. More often, the '> and "> prompts indicate that you've inadvertantly left out a quote character. For example:

mysql> SELECT * FROM my_table WHERE name = "Smith AND age < 30;
    ">

If you enter this SELECT statement, then press Enter and wait for the result, nothing will happen. Instead of wondering why this query takes so long, notice the clue provided by the "> prompt. It tells you that mysql expects to see the rest of an unterminated string. (Do you see the error in the statement? The string "Smith is missing the second quote.)

At this point, what do you do? The simplest thing is to cancel the command. However, you cannot just type \c in this case, because mysql interprets it as part of the string that it is collecting! Instead, enter the closing quote character (so mysql knows you've finished the string), then type \c:

mysql> SELECT * FROM my_table WHERE name = "Smith AND age < 30;
    "> "\c
mysql>

The prompt changes back to mysql>, indicating that mysql is ready for a new command.

It's important to know what the '> and "> prompts signify, because if you mistakenly enter an unterminated string, any further lines you type will appear to be ignored by mysql@-including a line containing QUIT! This can be quite confusing, especially if you don't know that you need to supply the terminating quote before you can cancel the current command.

3.3 Creating and Using a Database

Now that you know how to enter commands, it's time to access a database.

Suppose you have several pets in your home (your menagerie) and you'd like to keep track of various types of information about them. You can do so by creating tables to hold your data and loading them with the desired information. Then you can answer different sorts of questions about your animals by retrieving data from the tables. This section shows you how to:

The menagerie database will be simple (deliberately), but it is not difficult to think of real-world situations in which a similar type of database might be used. For example, a database like this could be used by a farmer to keep track of livestock, or by a veterinarian to keep track of patient records. A menagerie distribution containing some of the queries and sample data used in the following sections can be obtained from the MySQL web site. It's available in either compressed tar format (http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Contrib/Examples/menagerie.tar.gz) or Zip format (http://www.mysql.com/Downloads/Contrib/Examples/menagerie.zip).

Use the SHOW statement to find out what databases currently exist on the server:

mysql> SHOW DATABASES;
+----------+
| Database |
+----------+
| mysql    |
| test     |
| tmp      |
+----------+

The list of databases is probably different on your machine, but the mysql and test databases are likely to be among them. The mysql database is required because it describes user access privileges. The test database is often provided as a workspace for users to try things out.

Note that you may not see all databases if you don't have the SHOW DATABASES privilege. See section 4.3.1 GRANT and REVOKE Syntax.

If the test database exists, try to access it:

mysql> USE test
Database changed

Note that USE, like QUIT, does not require a semicolon. (You can terminate such statements with a semicolon if you like; it does no harm.) The USE statement is special in another way, too: it must be given on a single line.

You can use the test database (if you have access to it) for the examples that follow, but anything you create in that database can be removed by anyone else with access to it. For this reason, you should probably ask your MySQL administrator for permission to use a database of your own. Suppose you want to call yours menagerie. The administrator needs to execute a command like this:

mysql> GRANT ALL ON menagerie.* TO your_mysql_name;

where your_mysql_name is the MySQL user name assigned to you.

3.3.1 Creating and Selecting a Database

If the administrator creates your database for you when setting up your permissions, you can begin using it. Otherwise, you need to create it yourself:

mysql> CREATE DATABASE menagerie;

Under Unix, database names are case-sensitive (unlike SQL keywords), so you must always refer to your database as menagerie, not as Menagerie, MENAGERIE, or some other variant. This is also true for table names. (Under Windows, this restriction does not apply, although you must refer to databases and tables using the same lettercase throughout a given query.)

Creating a database does not select it for use; you must do that explicitly. To make menagerie the current database, use this command:

mysql> USE menagerie
Database changed

Your database needs to be created only once, but you must select it for use each time you begin a mysql session. You can do this by issuing a USE statement as shown above. Alternatively, you can select the database on the command-line when you invoke mysql. Just specify its name after any connection parameters that you might need to provide. For example:

shell> mysql -h host -u user -p menagerie
Enter password: ********

Note that menagerie is not your password on the command just shown. If you want to supply your password on the command-line after the -p option, you must do so with no intervening space (for example, as -pmypassword, not as -p mypassword). However, putting your password on the command-line is not recommended, because doing so exposes it to snooping by other users logged in on your machine.

3.3.2 Creating a Table

Creating the database is the easy part, but at this point it's empty, as SHOW TABLES will tell you:

mysql> SHOW TABLES;
Empty set (0.00 sec)

The harder part is deciding what the structure of your database should be: what tables you will need and what columns will be in each of them.

You'll want a table that contains a record for each of your pets. This can be called the pet table, and it should contain, as a bare minimum, each animal's name. Because the name by itself is not very interesting, the table should contain other information. For example, if more than one person in your family keeps pets, you might want to list each animal's owner. You might also want to record some basic descriptive information such as species and sex.

How about age? That might be of interest, but it's not a good thing to store in a database. Age changes as time passes, which means you'd have to update your records often. Instead, it's better to store a fixed value such as date of birth. Then, whenever you need age, you can calculate it as the difference between the current date and the birth date. MySQL provides functions for doing date arithmetic, so this is not difficult. Storing birth date rather than age has other advantages, too:

You can probably think of other types of information that would be useful in the pet table, but the ones identified so far are sufficient for now: name, owner, species, sex, birth, and death.

Use a CREATE TABLE statement to specify the layout of your table:

mysql> CREATE TABLE pet (name VARCHAR(20), owner VARCHAR(20),
    -> species VARCHAR(20), sex CHAR(1), birth DATE, death DATE);

VARCHAR is a good choice for the name, owner, and species columns because the column values will vary in length. The lengths of those columns need not all be the same, and need not be 20. You can pick any length from 1 to 255, whatever seems most reasonable to you. (If you make a poor choice and it turns out later that you need a longer field, MySQL provides an ALTER TABLE statement.)

Several types of values can be chosen to represent sex in animal records, such as "m" and "f", or perhaps "male" and "female". It's simplest to use the single characters "m" and "f".

The use of the DATE data type for the birth and death columns is a fairly obvious choice.

Now that you have created a table, SHOW TABLES should produce some output:

mysql> SHOW TABLES;
+---------------------+
| Tables in menagerie |
+---------------------+
| pet                 |
+---------------------+

To verify that your table was created the way you expected, use a DESCRIBE statement:

mysql> DESCRIBE pet;
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field   | Type        | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| name    | varchar(20) | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| owner   | varchar(20) | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| species | varchar(20) | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| sex     | char(1)     | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| birth   | date        | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| death   | date        | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+

You can use DESCRIBE any time, for example, if you forget the names of the columns in your table or what types they are.

3.3.3 Loading Data into a Table

After creating your table, you need to populate it. The LOAD DATA and INSERT statements are useful for this.

Suppose your pet records can be described as shown here. (Observe that MySQL expects dates in 'YYYY-MM-DD' format; this may be different from what you are used to.)

name owner species sex birth death
Fluffy Harold cat f 1993-02-04
Claws Gwen cat m 1994-03-17
Buffy Harold dog f 1989-05-13
Fang Benny dog m 1990-08-27
Bowser Diane dog m 1998-08-31 1995-07-29
Chirpy Gwen bird f 1998-09-11
Whistler Gwen bird 1997-12-09
Slim Benny snake m 1996-04-29

Because you are beginning with an empty table, an easy way to populate it is to create a text file containing a row for each of your animals, then load the contents of the file into the table with a single statement.

You could create a text file `pet.txt' containing one record per line, with values separated by tabs, and given in the order in which the columns were listed in the CREATE TABLE statement. For missing values (such as unknown sexes or death dates for animals that are still living), you can use NULL values. To represent these in your text file, use \N. For example, the record for Whistler the bird would look like this (where the whitespace between values is a single tab character):

name owner species sex birth death
Whistler Gwen bird \N 1997-12-09 \N

To load the text file `pet.txt' into the pet table, use this command:

mysql> LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE "pet.txt" INTO TABLE pet;

You can specify the column value separator and end of line marker explicitly in the LOAD DATA statement if you wish, but the defaults are tab and linefeed. These are sufficient for the statement to read the file `pet.txt' properly.

When you want to add new records one at a time, the INSERT statement is useful. In its simplest form, you supply values for each column, in the order in which the columns were listed in the CREATE TABLE statement. Suppose Diane gets a new hamster named Puffball. You could add a new record using an INSERT statement like this:

mysql> INSERT INTO pet
    -> VALUES ('Puffball','Diane','hamster','f','1999-03-30',NULL);

Note that string and date values are specified as quoted strings here. Also, with INSERT, you can insert NULL directly to represent a missing value. You do not use \N like you do with LOAD DATA.

From this example, you should be able to see that there would be a lot more typing involved to load your records initially using several INSERT statements rather than a single LOAD DATA statement.

3.3.4 Retrieving Information from a Table

The SELECT statement is used to pull information from a table. The general form of the statement is:

SELECT what_to_select
FROM which_table
WHERE conditions_to_satisfy

what_to_select indicates what you want to see. This can be a list of columns, or * to indicate ``all columns.'' which_table indicates the table from which you want to retrieve data. The WHERE clause is optional. If it's present, conditions_to_satisfy specifies conditions that rows must satisfy to qualify for retrieval.

3.3.4.1 Selecting All Data

The simplest form of SELECT retrieves everything from a table:

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet;
+----------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| name     | owner  | species | sex  | birth      | death      |
+----------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| Fluffy   | Harold | cat     | f    | 1993-02-04 | NULL       |
| Claws    | Gwen   | cat     | m    | 1994-03-17 | NULL       |
| Buffy    | Harold | dog     | f    | 1989-05-13 | NULL       |
| Fang     | Benny  | dog     | m    | 1990-08-27 | NULL       |
| Bowser   | Diane  | dog     | m    | 1998-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
| Chirpy   | Gwen   | bird    | f    | 1998-09-11 | NULL       |
| Whistler | Gwen   | bird    | NULL | 1997-12-09 | NULL       |
| Slim     | Benny  | snake   | m    | 1996-04-29 | NULL       |
| Puffball | Diane  | hamster | f    | 1999-03-30 | NULL       |
+----------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+

This form of SELECT is useful if you want to review your entire table, for instance, after you've just loaded it with your initial dataset. As it happens, the output just shown reveals an error in your datafile: Bowser appears to have been born after he died! Consulting your original pedigree papers, you find that the correct birth year is 1989, not 1998.

There are least a couple of ways to fix this:

As shown above, it is easy to retrieve an entire table. But typically you don't want to do that, particularly when the table becomes large. Instead, you're usually more interested in answering a particular question, in which case you specify some constraints on the information you want. Let's look at some selection queries in terms of questions about your pets that they answer.

3.3.4.2 Selecting Particular Rows

You can select only particular rows from your table. For example, if you want to verify the change that you made to Bowser's birth date, select Bowser's record like this:

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name = "Bowser";
+--------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| name   | owner | species | sex  | birth      | death      |
+--------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| Bowser | Diane | dog     | m    | 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
+--------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+

The output confirms that the year is correctly recorded now as 1989, not 1998.

String comparisons are normally case-insensitive, so you can specify the name as "bowser", "BOWSER", etc. The query result will be the same.

You can specify conditions on any column, not just name. For example, if you want to know which animals were born after 1998, test the birth column:

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE birth >= "1998-1-1";
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name     | owner | species | sex  | birth      | death |
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Chirpy   | Gwen  | bird    | f    | 1998-09-11 | NULL  |
| Puffball | Diane | hamster | f    | 1999-03-30 | NULL  |
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+

You can combine conditions, for example, to locate female dogs:

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE species = "dog" AND sex = "f";
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name  | owner  | species | sex  | birth      | death |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Buffy | Harold | dog     | f    | 1989-05-13 | NULL  |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+

The preceding query uses the AND logical operator. There is also an OR operator:

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE species = "snake" OR species = "bird";
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name     | owner | species | sex  | birth      | death |
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Chirpy   | Gwen  | bird    | f    | 1998-09-11 | NULL  |
| Whistler | Gwen  | bird    | NULL | 1997-12-09 | NULL  |
| Slim     | Benny | snake   | m    | 1996-04-29 | NULL  |
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+-------+

AND and OR may be intermixed. If you do that, it's a good idea to use parentheses to indicate how conditions should be grouped:

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE (species = "cat" AND sex = "m")
    -> OR (species = "dog" AND sex = "f");
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name  | owner  | species | sex  | birth      | death |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Claws | Gwen   | cat     | m    | 1994-03-17 | NULL  |
| Buffy | Harold | dog     | f    | 1989-05-13 | NULL  |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+

3.3.4.3 Selecting Particular Columns

If you don't want to see entire rows from your table, just name the columns in which you're interested, separated by commas. For example, if you want to know when your animals were born, select the name and birth columns:

mysql> SELECT name, birth FROM pet;
+----------+------------+
| name     | birth      |
+----------+------------+
| Fluffy   | 1993-02-04 |
| Claws    | 1994-03-17 |
| Buffy    | 1989-05-13 |
| Fang     | 1990-08-27 |
| Bowser   | 1989-08-31 |
| Chirpy   | 1998-09-11 |
| Whistler | 1997-12-09 |
| Slim     | 1996-04-29 |
| Puffball | 1999-03-30 |
+----------+------------+

To find out who owns pets, use this query:

mysql> SELECT owner FROM pet;
+--------+
| owner  |
+--------+
| Harold |
| Gwen   |
| Harold |
| Benny  |
| Diane  |
| Gwen   |
| Gwen   |
| Benny  |
| Diane  |
+--------+

However, notice that the query simply retrieves the owner field from each record, and some of them appear more than once. To minimise the output, retrieve each unique output record just once by adding the keyword DISTINCT:

mysql> SELECT DISTINCT owner FROM pet;
+--------+
| owner  |
+--------+
| Benny  |
| Diane  |
| Gwen   |
| Harold |
+--------+

You can use a WHERE clause to combine row selection with column selection. For example, to get birth dates for dogs and cats only, use this query:

mysql> SELECT name, species, birth FROM pet
    -> WHERE species = "dog" OR species = "cat";
+--------+---------+------------+
| name   | species | birth      |
+--------+---------+------------+
| Fluffy | cat     | 1993-02-04 |
| Claws  | cat     | 1994-03-17 |
| Buffy  | dog     | 1989-05-13 |
| Fang   | dog     | 1990-08-27 |
| Bowser | dog     | 1989-08-31 |
+--------+---------+------------+

3.3.4.4 Sorting Rows

You may have noticed in the preceding examples that the result rows are displayed in no particular order. However, it's often easier to examine query output when the rows are sorted in some meaningful way. To sort a result, use an ORDER BY clause.

Here are animal birthdays, sorted by date:

mysql> SELECT name, birth FROM pet ORDER BY birth;
+----------+------------+
| name     | birth      |
+----------+------------+
| Buffy    | 1989-05-13 |
| Bowser   | 1989-08-31 |
| Fang     | 1990-08-27 |
| Fluffy   | 1993-02-04 |
| Claws    | 1994-03-17 |
| Slim     | 1996-04-29 |
| Whistler | 1997-12-09 |
| Chirpy   | 1998-09-11 |
| Puffball | 1999-03-30 |
+----------+------------+

On character type columns, sorting@-like all other comparison operations@-is normally performed in a case-insensitive fashion. This means that the order will be undefined for columns that are identical except for their case. You can force a case-sensitive sort by using the BINARY cast: ORDER BY BINARY(field).

To sort in reverse order, add the DESC (descending) keyword to the name of the column you are sorting by:

mysql> SELECT name, birth FROM pet ORDER BY birth DESC;
+----------+------------+
| name     | birth      |
+----------+------------+
| Puffball | 1999-03-30 |
| Chirpy   | 1998-09-11 |
| Whistler | 1997-12-09 |
| Slim     | 1996-04-29 |
| Claws    | 1994-03-17 |
| Fluffy   | 1993-02-04 |
| Fang     | 1990-08-27 |
| Bowser   | 1989-08-31 |
| Buffy    | 1989-05-13 |
+----------+------------+

You can sort on multiple columns. For example, to sort by type of animal, then by birth date within animal type with youngest animals first, use the following query:

mysql> SELECT name, species, birth FROM pet ORDER BY species, birth DESC;
+----------+---------+------------+
| name     | species | birth      |
+----------+---------+------------+
| Chirpy   | bird    | 1998-09-11 |
| Whistler | bird    | 1997-12-09 |
| Claws    | cat     | 1994-03-17 |
| Fluffy   | cat     | 1993-02-04 |
| Fang     | dog     | 1990-08-27 |
| Bowser   | dog     | 1989-08-31 |
| Buffy    | dog     | 1989-05-13 |
| Puffball | hamster | 1999-03-30 |
| Slim     | snake   | 1996-04-29 |
+----------+---------+------------+

Note that the DESC keyword applies only to the column name immediately preceding it (birth); species values are still sorted in ascending order.

3.3.4.5 Date Calculations

MySQL provides several functions that you can use to perform calculations on dates, for example, to calculate ages or extract parts of dates.

To determine how many years old each of your pets is, compute the difference in the year part of the current date and the birth date, then subtract one if the current date occurs earlier in the calendar year than the birth date. The following query shows, for each pet, the birth date, the current date, and the age in years.

mysql> SELECT name, birth, CURRENT_DATE,
    -> (YEAR(CURRENT_DATE)-YEAR(birth))
    -> - (RIGHT(CURRENT_DATE,5)<RIGHT(birth,5))
    -> AS age
    -> FROM pet;
+----------+------------+--------------+------+
| name     | birth      | CURRENT_DATE | age  |
+----------+------------+--------------+------+
| Fluffy   | 1993-02-04 | 2001-08-29   |    8 |
| Claws    | 1994-03-17 | 2001-08-29   |    7 |
| Buffy    | 1989-05-13 | 2001-08-29   |   12 |
| Fang     | 1990-08-27 | 2001-08-29   |   11 |
| Bowser   | 1989-08-31 | 2001-08-29   |   11 |
| Chirpy   | 1998-09-11 | 2001-08-29   |    2 |
| Whistler | 1997-12-09 | 2001-08-29   |    3 |
| Slim     | 1996-04-29 | 2001-08-29   |    5 |
| Puffball | 1999-03-30 | 2001-08-29   |    2 |
+----------+------------+--------------+------+

Here, YEAR() pulls out the year part of a date and RIGHT() pulls off the rightmost five characters that represent the MM-DD (calendar year) part of the date. The part of the expression that compares the MM-DD values evaluates to 1 or 0, which adjusts the year difference down a year if CURRENT_DATE occurs earlier in the year than birth. The full expression is somewhat ungainly, so an alias (age) is used to make the output column label more meaningful.

The query works, but the result could be scanned more easily if the rows were presented in some order. This can be done by adding an ORDER BY name clause to sort the output by name:

mysql> SELECT name, birth, CURRENT_DATE,
    -> (YEAR(CURRENT_DATE)-YEAR(birth))
    -> - (RIGHT(CURRENT_DATE,5)<RIGHT(birth,5))
    -> AS age
    -> FROM pet ORDER BY name;
+----------+------------+--------------+------+
| name     | birth      | CURRENT_DATE | age  |
+----------+------------+--------------+------+
| Bowser   | 1989-08-31 | 2001-08-29   |   11 |
| Buffy    | 1989-05-13 | 2001-08-29   |   12 |
| Chirpy   | 1998-09-11 | 2001-08-29   |    2 |
| Claws    | 1994-03-17 | 2001-08-29   |    7 |
| Fang     | 1990-08-27 | 2001-08-29   |   11 |
| Fluffy   | 1993-02-04 | 2001-08-29   |    8 |
| Puffball | 1999-03-30 | 2001-08-29   |    2 |
| Slim     | 1996-04-29 | 2001-08-29   |    5 |
| Whistler | 1997-12-09 | 2001-08-29   |    3 |
+----------+------------+--------------+------+

To sort the output by age rather than name, just use a different ORDER BY clause:

mysql> SELECT name, birth, CURRENT_DATE,
    -> (YEAR(CURRENT_DATE)-YEAR(birth))
    -> - (RIGHT(CURRENT_DATE,5)<RIGHT(birth,5))
    -> AS age
    -> FROM pet ORDER BY age;
+----------+------------+--------------+------+
| name     | birth      | CURRENT_DATE | age  |
+----------+------------+--------------+------+
| Chirpy   | 1998-09-11 | 2001-08-29   |    2 |
| Puffball | 1999-03-30 | 2001-08-29   |    2 |
| Whistler | 1997-12-09 | 2001-08-29   |    3 |
| Slim     | 1996-04-29 | 2001-08-29   |    5 |
| Claws    | 1994-03-17 | 2001-08-29   |    7 |
| Fluffy   | 1993-02-04 | 2001-08-29   |    8 |
| Fang     | 1990-08-27 | 2001-08-29   |   11 |
| Bowser   | 1989-08-31 | 2001-08-29   |   11 |
| Buffy    | 1989-05-13 | 2001-08-29   |   12 |
+----------+------------+--------------+------+

A similar query can be used to determine age at death for animals that have died. You determine which animals these are by checking whether the death value is NULL. Then, for those with non-NULL values, compute the difference between the death and birth values:

mysql> SELECT name, birth, death,
    -> (YEAR(death)-YEAR(birth)) - (RIGHT(death,5)<RIGHT(birth,5))
    -> AS age
    -> FROM pet WHERE death IS NOT NULL ORDER BY age;
+--------+------------+------------+------+
| name   | birth      | death      | age  |
+--------+------------+------------+------+
| Bowser | 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |    5 |
+--------+------------+------------+------+

The query uses death IS NOT NULL rather than death <> NULL because NULL is a special value. This is explained later. See section 3.3.4.6 Working with NULL Values.

What if you want to know which animals have birthdays next month? For this type of calculation, year and day are irrelevant; you simply want to extract the month part of the birth column. MySQL provides several date-part extraction functions, such as YEAR(), MONTH(), and DAYOFMONTH(). MONTH() is the appropriate function here. To see how it works, run a simple query that displays the value of both birth and MONTH(birth):

mysql> SELECT name, birth, MONTH(birth) FROM pet;
+----------+------------+--------------+
| name     | birth      | MONTH(birth) |
+----------+------------+--------------+
| Fluffy   | 1993-02-04 |            2 |
| Claws    | 1994-03-17 |            3 |
| Buffy    | 1989-05-13 |            5 |
| Fang     | 1990-08-27 |            8 |
| Bowser   | 1989-08-31 |            8 |
| Chirpy   | 1998-09-11 |            9 |
| Whistler | 1997-12-09 |           12 |
| Slim     | 1996-04-29 |            4 |
| Puffball | 1999-03-30 |            3 |
+----------+------------+--------------+

Finding animals with birthdays in the upcoming month is easy, too. Suppose the current month is April. Then the month value is 4 and you look for animals born in May (month 5) like this:

mysql> SELECT name, birth FROM pet WHERE MONTH(birth) = 5;
+-------+------------+
| name  | birth      |
+-------+------------+
| Buffy | 1989-05-13 |
+-------+------------+

There is a small complication if the current month is December, of course. You don't just add one to the month number (12) and look for animals born in month 13, because there is no such month. Instead, you look for animals born in January (month 1).

You can even write the query so that it works no matter what the current month is. That way you don't have to use a particular month number in the query. DATE_ADD() allows you to add a time interval to a given date. If you add a month to the value of NOW(), then extract the month part with MONTH(), the result produces the month in which to look for birthdays:

mysql> SELECT name, birth FROM pet
    -> WHERE MONTH(birth) = MONTH(DATE_ADD(NOW(), INTERVAL 1 MONTH));

A different way to accomplish the same task is to add 1 to get the next month after the current one (after using the modulo function (MOD) to wrap around the month value to 0 if it is currently 12):

mysql> SELECT name, birth FROM pet
    -> WHERE MONTH(birth) = MOD(MONTH(NOW()), 12) + 1;

Note that MONTH returns a number between 1 and 12. And MOD(something,12) returns a number between 0 and 11. So the addition has to be after the MOD(), otherwise we would go from November (11) to January (1).

3.3.4.6 Working with NULL Values

The NULL value can be surprising until you get used to it. Conceptually, NULL means missing value or unknown value and it is treated somewhat differently than other values. To test for NULL, you cannot use the arithmetic comparison operators such as =, <, or <>. To demonstrate this for yourself, try the following query:

mysql> SELECT 1 = NULL, 1 <> NULL, 1 < NULL, 1 > NULL;
+----------+-----------+----------+----------+
| 1 = NULL | 1 <> NULL | 1 < NULL | 1 > NULL |
+----------+-----------+----------+----------+
|     NULL |      NULL |     NULL |     NULL |
+----------+-----------+----------+----------+

Clearly you get no meaningful results from these comparisons. Use the IS NULL and IS NOT NULL operators instead:

mysql> SELECT 1 IS NULL, 1 IS NOT NULL;
+-----------+---------------+
| 1 IS NULL | 1 IS NOT NULL |
+-----------+---------------+
|         0 |             1 |
+-----------+---------------+

Note that in MySQL, 0 or NULL means false and anything else means true. The default truth value from a boolean operation is 1.

This special treatment of NULL is why, in the previous section, it was necessary to determine which animals are no longer alive using death IS NOT NULL instead of death <> NULL.

Two NULL values are regarded as equal in a GROUP BY.

When doing an ORDER BY, NULL values are presented first if you do ORDER BY ... ASC and last if you do ORDER BY ... DESC.

Note that between MySQL 4.0.2 - 4.0.10, NULL values incorrectly were always sorted first regardless of the sort direction.

3.3.4.7 Pattern Matching

MySQL provides standard SQL pattern matching as well as a form of pattern matching based on extended regular expressions similar to those used by Unix utilities such as vi, grep, and sed.

SQL pattern matching allows you to use `_' to match any single character and `%' to match an arbitrary number of characters (including zero characters). In MySQL, SQL patterns are case-insensitive by default. Some examples are shown here. Note that you do not use = or <> when you use SQL patterns; use the LIKE or NOT LIKE comparison operators instead.

To find names beginning with `b':

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name LIKE "b%";
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| name   | owner  | species | sex  | birth      | death      |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| Buffy  | Harold | dog     | f    | 1989-05-13 | NULL       |
| Bowser | Diane  | dog     | m    | 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+

To find names ending with `fy':

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name LIKE "%fy";
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name   | owner  | species | sex  | birth      | death |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Fluffy | Harold | cat     | f    | 1993-02-04 | NULL  |
| Buffy  | Harold | dog     | f    | 1989-05-13 | NULL  |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+

To find names containing a `w':

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name LIKE "%w%";
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| name     | owner | species | sex  | birth      | death      |
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| Claws    | Gwen  | cat     | m    | 1994-03-17 | NULL       |
| Bowser   | Diane | dog     | m    | 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
| Whistler | Gwen  | bird    | NULL | 1997-12-09 | NULL       |
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+

To find names containing exactly five characters, use the `_' pattern character:

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name LIKE "_____";
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name  | owner  | species | sex  | birth      | death |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Claws | Gwen   | cat     | m    | 1994-03-17 | NULL  |
| Buffy | Harold | dog     | f    | 1989-05-13 | NULL  |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+

The other type of pattern matching provided by MySQL uses extended regular expressions. When you test for a match for this type of pattern, use the REGEXP and NOT REGEXP operators (or RLIKE and NOT RLIKE, which are synonyms).

Some characteristics of extended regular expressions are:

To demonstrate how extended regular expressions work, the LIKE queries shown previously are rewritten here to use REGEXP.

To find names beginning with `b', use `^' to match the beginning of the name:

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP "^b";
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| name   | owner  | species | sex  | birth      | death      |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| Buffy  | Harold | dog     | f    | 1989-05-13 | NULL       |
| Bowser | Diane  | dog     | m    | 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+------------+

Prior to MySQL Version 3.23.4, REGEXP is case-sensitive, and the previous query will return no rows. To match either lowercase or uppercase `b', use this query instead:

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP "^[bB]";

From MySQL 3.23.4 on, to force a REGEXP comparison to be case-sensitive, use the BINARY keyword to make one of the strings a binary string. This query will match only lowercase `b' at the beginning of a name:

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP BINARY "^b";

To find names ending with `fy', use `$' to match the end of the name:

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP "fy$";
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name   | owner  | species | sex  | birth      | death |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Fluffy | Harold | cat     | f    | 1993-02-04 | NULL  |
| Buffy  | Harold | dog     | f    | 1989-05-13 | NULL  |
+--------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+

To find names containing a lowercase or uppercase `w', use this query:

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP "w";
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| name     | owner | species | sex  | birth      | death      |
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+
| Claws    | Gwen  | cat     | m    | 1994-03-17 | NULL       |
| Bowser   | Diane | dog     | m    | 1989-08-31 | 1995-07-29 |
| Whistler | Gwen  | bird    | NULL | 1997-12-09 | NULL       |
+----------+-------+---------+------+------------+------------+

Because a regular expression pattern matches if it occurs anywhere in the value, it is not necessary in the previous query to put a wildcard on either side of the pattern to get it to match the entire value like it would be if you used a SQL pattern.

To find names containing exactly five characters, use `^' and `$' to match the beginning and end of the name, and five instances of `.' in between:

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP "^.....$";
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name  | owner  | species | sex  | birth      | death |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Claws | Gwen   | cat     | m    | 1994-03-17 | NULL  |
| Buffy | Harold | dog     | f    | 1989-05-13 | NULL  |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+

You could also write the previous query using the `{n}' ``repeat-n-times'' operator:

mysql> SELECT * FROM pet WHERE name REGEXP "^.{5}$";
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| name  | owner  | species | sex  | birth      | death |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+
| Claws | Gwen   | cat     | m    | 1994-03-17 | NULL  |
| Buffy | Harold | dog     | f    | 1989-05-13 | NULL  |
+-------+--------+---------+------+------------+-------+

3.3.4.8 Counting Rows

Databases are often used to answer the question, ``How often does a certain type of data occur in a table?'' For example, you might want to know how many pets you have, or how many pets each owner has, or you might want to perform various kinds of censuses on your animals.

Counting the total number of animals you have is the same question as ``How many rows are in the pet table?'' because there is one record per pet. The COUNT() function counts the number of non-NULL results, so the query to count your animals looks like this:

mysql> SELECT COUNT(*) FROM pet;
+----------+
| COUNT(*) |
+----------+
|        9 |
+----------+

Earlier, you retrieved the names of the people who owned pets. You can use COUNT() if you want to find out how many pets each owner has:

mysql> SELECT owner, COUNT(*) FROM pet GROUP BY owner;
+--------+----------+
| owner  | COUNT(*) |
+--------+----------+
| Benny  |        2 |
| Diane  |        2 |
| Gwen   |        3 |
| Harold |        2 |
+--------+----------+

Note the use of GROUP BY to group together all records for each owner. Without it, all you get is an error message:

mysql> SELECT owner, COUNT(owner) FROM pet;
ERROR 1140 at line 1: Mixing of GROUP columns (MIN(),MAX(),COUNT()...)
with no GROUP columns is illegal if there is no GROUP BY clause

COUNT() and GROUP BY are useful for characterising your data in various ways. The following examples show different ways to perform animal census operations.

Number of animals per species:

mysql> SELECT species, COUNT(*) FROM pet GROUP BY species;
+---------+----------+
| species | COUNT(*) |
+---------+----------+
| bird    |        2 |
| cat     |        2 |
| dog     |        3 |
| hamster |        1 |
| snake   |        1 |
+---------+----------+

Number of animals per sex:

mysql> SELECT sex, COUNT(*) FROM pet GROUP BY sex;
+------+----------+
| sex  | COUNT(*) |
+------+----------+
| NULL |        1 |
| f    |        4 |
| m    |        4 |
+------+----------+

(In this output, NULL indicates sex unknown.)

Number of animals per combination of species and sex:

mysql> SELECT species, sex, COUNT(*) FROM pet GROUP BY species, sex;
+---------+------+----------+
| species | sex  | COUNT(*) |
+---------+------+----------+
| bird    | NULL |        1 |
| bird    | f    |        1 |
| cat     | f    |        1 |
| cat     | m    |        1 |
| dog     | f    |        1 |
| dog     | m    |        2 |
| hamster | f    |        1 |
| snake   | m    |        1 |
+---------+------+----------+

You need not retrieve an entire table when you use COUNT(). For example, the previous query, when performed just on dogs and cats, looks like this:

mysql> SELECT species, sex, COUNT(*) FROM pet
    -> WHERE species = "dog" OR species = "cat"
    -> GROUP BY species, sex;
+---------+------+----------+
| species | sex  | COUNT(*) |
+---------+------+----------+
| cat     | f    |        1 |
| cat     | m    |        1 |
| dog     | f    |        1 |
| dog     | m    |        2 |
+---------+------+----------+

Or, if you wanted the number of animals per sex only for known-sex animals:

mysql> SELECT species, sex, COUNT(*) FROM pet
    -> WHERE sex IS NOT NULL
    -> GROUP BY species, sex;
+---------+------+----------+
| species | sex  | COUNT(*) |
+---------+------+----------+
| bird    | f    |        1 |
| cat     | f    |        1 |
| cat     | m    |        1 |
| dog     | f    |        1 |
| dog     | m    |        2 |
| hamster | f    |        1 |
| snake   | m    |        1 |
+---------+------+----------+

3.3.4.9 Using More Than one Table

The pet table keeps track of which pets you have. If you want to record other information about them, such as events in their lives like visits to the vet or when litters are born, you need another table. What should this table look like? It needs:

Given these considerations, the CREATE TABLE statement for the event table might look like this:

mysql> CREATE TABLE event (name VARCHAR(20), date DATE,
    -> type VARCHAR(15), remark VARCHAR(255));

As with the pet table, it's easiest to load the initial records by creating a tab-delimited text file containing the information:

name date type remark
Fluffy 1995-05-15 litter 4 kittens, 3 female, 1 male
Buffy 1993-06-23 litter 5 puppies, 2 female, 3 male
Buffy 1994-06-19 litter 3 puppies, 3 female
Chirpy 1999-03-21 vet needed beak straightened
Slim 1997-08-03 vet broken rib
Bowser 1991-10-12 kennel
Fang 1991-10-12 kennel
Fang 1998-08-28 birthday Gave him a new chew toy
Claws 1998-03-17 birthday Gave him a new flea collar
Whistler 1998-12-09 birthday First birthday

Load the records like this:

mysql> LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE "event.txt" INTO TABLE event;

Based on what you've learned from the queries you've run on the pet table, you should be able to perform retrievals on the records in the event table; the principles are the same. But when is the event table by itself insufficient to answer questions you might ask?

Suppose you want to find out the ages of each pet when they had their litters. The event table indicates when this occurred, but to calculate the age of the mother, you need her birth date. Because that is stored in the pet table, you need both tables for the query:

mysql> SELECT pet.name,
    -> (TO_DAYS(date) - TO_DAYS(birth))/365 AS age,
    -> remark
    -> FROM pet, event
    -> WHERE pet.name = event.name AND type = "litter";
+--------+------+-----------------------------+
| name   | age  | remark                      |
+--------+------+-----------------------------+
| Fluffy | 2.27 | 4 kittens, 3 female, 1 male |
| Buffy  | 4.12 | 5 puppies, 2 female, 3 male |
| Buffy  | 5.10 | 3 puppies, 3 female         |
+--------+------+-----------------------------+

There are several things to note about this query:

You need not have two different tables to perform a join. Sometimes it is useful to join a table to itself, if you want to compare records in a table to other records in that same table. For example, to find breeding pairs among your pets, you can join the pet table with itself to pair up males and females of like species:

mysql> SELECT p1.name, p1.sex, p2.name, p2.sex, p1.species
    -> FROM pet AS p1, pet AS p2
    -> WHERE p1.species = p2.species AND p1.sex = "f" AND p2.sex = "m";
+--------+------+--------+------+---------+
| name   | sex  | name   | sex  | species |
+--------+------+--------+------+---------+
| Fluffy | f    | Claws  | m    | cat     |
| Buffy  | f    | Fang   | m    | dog     |
| Buffy  | f    | Bowser | m    | dog     |
+--------+------+--------+------+---------+

In this query, we specify aliases for the table name in order to refer to the columns and keep straight which instance of the table each column reference is associated with.

3.4 Getting Information About Databases and Tables

What if you forget the name of a database or table, or what the structure of a given table is (for example, what its columns are called)? MySQL addresses this problem through several statements that provide information about the databases and tables it supports.

You have already seen SHOW DATABASES, which lists the databases managed by the server. To find out which database is currently selected, use the DATABASE() function:

mysql> SELECT DATABASE();
+------------+
| DATABASE() |
+------------+
| menagerie  |
+------------+

If you haven't selected any database yet, the result is blank.

To find out what tables the current database contains (for example, when you're not sure about the name of a table), use this command:

mysql> SHOW TABLES;
+---------------------+
| Tables in menagerie |
+---------------------+
| event               |
| pet                 |
+---------------------+

If you want to find out about the structure of a table, the DESCRIBE command is useful; it displays information about each of a table's columns:

mysql> DESCRIBE pet;
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field   | Type        | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| name    | varchar(20) | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| owner   | varchar(20) | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| species | varchar(20) | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| sex     | char(1)     | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| birth   | date        | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| death   | date        | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
+---------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+

Field indicates the column name, Type is the data type for the column, NULL indicates whether the column can contain NULL values, Key indicates whether the column is indexed, and Default specifies the column's default value.

If you have indexes on a table, SHOW INDEX FROM tbl_name produces information about them.

3.5 Examples of Common Queries

Here are examples of how to solve some common problems with MySQL.

Some of the examples use the table shop to hold the price of each article (item number) for certain traders (dealers). Supposing that each trader has a single fixed price per article, then (article, dealer) is a primary key for the records.

Start the command-line tool mysql and select a database:

mysql your-database-name

(In most MySQL installations, you can use the database-name 'test').

You can create the example table as:

CREATE TABLE shop (
 article INT(4) UNSIGNED ZEROFILL DEFAULT '0000' NOT NULL,
 dealer  CHAR(20)                 DEFAULT ''     NOT NULL,
 price   DOUBLE(16,2)             DEFAULT '0.00' NOT NULL,
 PRIMARY KEY(article, dealer));

INSERT INTO shop VALUES
(1,'A',3.45),(1,'B',3.99),(2,'A',10.99),(3,'B',1.45),(3,'C',1.69),
(3,'D',1.25),(4,'D',19.95);

Okay, so the example data is:

mysql> SELECT * FROM shop;

+---------+--------+-------+
| article | dealer | price |
+---------+--------+-------+
|    0001 | A      |  3.45 |
|    0001 | B      |  3.99 |
|    0002 | A      | 10.99 |
|    0003 | B      |  1.45 |
|    0003 | C      |  1.69 |
|    0003 | D      |  1.25 |
|    0004 | D      | 19.95 |
+---------+--------+-------+

3.5.1 The Maximum Value for a Column

``What's the highest item number?''

SELECT MAX(article) AS article FROM shop

+---------+
| article |
+---------+
|       4 |
+---------+

3.5.2 The Row Holding the Maximum of a Certain Column

``Find number, dealer, and price of the most expensive article.''

In ANSI SQL (and MySQL Version 4.1) this is easily done with a subquery:

SELECT article, dealer, price
FROM   shop
WHERE  price=(SELECT MAX(price) FROM shop)

In MySQL versions prior to 4.1, just do it in two steps:

  1. Get the maximum price value from the table with a SELECT statement.
  2. Using this value compile the actual query:
    SELECT article, dealer, price
    FROM   shop
    WHERE  price=19.95
    

Another solution is to sort all rows descending by price and only get the first row using the MySQL-specific LIMIT clause:

SELECT article, dealer, price
FROM   shop
ORDER BY price DESC
LIMIT 1

NOTE: If there are several most expensive articles (for example, each 19.95) the LIMIT solution shows only one of them!

3.5.3 Maximum of Column per Group

``What's the highest price per article?''

SELECT article, MAX(price) AS price
FROM   shop
GROUP BY article

+---------+-------+
| article | price |
+---------+-------+
|    0001 |  3.99 |
|    0002 | 10.99 |
|    0003 |  1.69 |
|    0004 | 19.95 |
+---------+-------+

3.5.4 The Rows Holding the Group-wise Maximum of a Certain Field

``For each article, find the dealer(s) with the most expensive price.''

In ANSI SQL (and MySQL Version 4.1 or greater), I'd do it with a subquery like this:

SELECT article, dealer, price
FROM   shop s1
WHERE  price=(SELECT MAX(s2.price)
              FROM shop s2
              WHERE s1.article = s2.article);

In MySQL versions prior to 4.1 it's best do it in several steps:

  1. Get the list of (article,maxprice).
  2. For each article get the corresponding rows that have the stored maximum price.

This can easily be done with a temporary table:

CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE tmp (
        article INT(4) UNSIGNED ZEROFILL DEFAULT '0000' NOT NULL,
        price   DOUBLE(16,2)             DEFAULT '0.00' NOT NULL);

LOCK TABLES shop read;

INSERT INTO tmp SELECT article, MAX(price) FROM shop GROUP BY article;

SELECT shop.article, dealer, shop.price FROM shop, tmp
WHERE shop.article=tmp.article AND shop.price=tmp.price;

UNLOCK TABLES;

DROP TABLE tmp;

If you don't use a TEMPORARY table, you must also lock the 'tmp' table.

``Can it be done with a single query?''

Yes, but only by using a quite inefficient trick that I call the ``MAX-CONCAT trick'':

SELECT article,
       SUBSTRING( MAX( CONCAT(LPAD(price,6,'0'),dealer) ), 7) AS dealer,
  0.00+LEFT(      MAX( CONCAT(LPAD(price,6,'0'),dealer) ), 6) AS price
FROM   shop
GROUP BY article;

+---------+--------+-------+
| article | dealer | price |
+---------+--------+-------+
|    0001 | B      |  3.99 |
|    0002 | A      | 10.99 |
|    0003 | C      |  1.69 |
|    0004 | D      | 19.95 |
+---------+--------+-------+

The last example can, of course, be made a bit more efficient by doing the splitting of the concatenated column in the client.

3.5.5 Using user variables

You can use MySQL user variables to remember results without having to store them in temporary variables in the client. See section 6.1.4 User Variables.

For example, to find the articles with the highest and lowest price you can do:

mysql> SELECT @min_price:=MIN(price),@max_price:=MAX(price) FROM shop;
mysql> SELECT * FROM shop WHERE price=@min_price OR price=@max_price;
+---------+--------+-------+
| article | dealer | price |
+---------+--------+-------+
|    0003 | D      |  1.25 |
|    0004 | D      | 19.95 |
+---------+--------+-------+

3.5.6 Using Foreign Keys

In MySQL 3.23.44 and up, InnoDB tables supports checking of foreign key constraints. See section 7.5 InnoDB Tables. See also section 1.7.4.5 Foreign Keys.

You don't actually need foreign keys to join 2 tables. The only thing MySQL currently doesn't do (in table types other than InnoDB), is CHECK to make sure that the keys you use really exist in the table(s) you're referencing and it doesn't automatically delete rows from a table with a foreign key definition. If you use your keys like normal, it'll work just fine:

CREATE TABLE person (
    id SMALLINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
    name CHAR(60) NOT NULL,
    PRIMARY KEY (id)
);

CREATE TABLE shirt (
    id SMALLINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
    style ENUM('t-shirt', 'polo', 'dress') NOT NULL,
    color ENUM('red', 'blue', 'orange', 'white', 'black') NOT NULL,
    owner SMALLINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL REFERENCES person(id),
    PRIMARY KEY (id)
);

INSERT INTO person VALUES (NULL, 'Antonio Paz');

INSERT INTO shirt VALUES
(NULL, 'polo', 'blue', LAST_INSERT_ID()),
(NULL, 'dress', 'white', LAST_INSERT_ID()),
(NULL, 't-shirt', 'blue', LAST_INSERT_ID());

INSERT INTO person VALUES (NULL, 'Lilliana Angelovska');

INSERT INTO shirt VALUES
(NULL, 'dress', 'orange', LAST_INSERT_ID()),
(NULL, 'polo', 'red', LAST_INSERT_ID()),
(NULL, 'dress', 'blue', LAST_INSERT_ID()),
(NULL, 't-shirt', 'white', LAST_INSERT_ID());

SELECT * FROM person;
+----+---------------------+
| id | name                |
+----+---------------------+
|  1 | Antonio Paz         |
|  2 | Lilliana Angelovska |
+----+---------------------+

SELECT * FROM shirt;
+----+---------+--------+-------+
| id | style   | color  | owner |
+----+---------+--------+-------+
|  1 | polo    | blue   |     1 |
|  2 | dress   | white  |     1 |
|  3 | t-shirt | blue   |     1 |
|  4 | dress   | orange |     2 |
|  5 | polo    | red    |     2 |
|  6 | dress   | blue   |     2 |
|  7 | t-shirt | white  |     2 |
+----+---------+--------+-------+

SELECT s.* FROM person p, shirt s
 WHERE p.name LIKE 'Lilliana%'
   AND s.owner = p.id
   AND s.color <> 'white';

+----+-------+--------+-------+
| id | style | color  | owner |
+----+-------+--------+-------+
|  4 | dress | orange |     2 |
|  5 | polo  | red    |     2 |
|  6 | dress | blue   |     2 |
+----+-------+--------+-------+

3.5.7 Searching on Two Keys

MySQL doesn't yet optimise when you search on two different keys combined with OR (searching on one key with different OR parts is optimised quite well):

SELECT field1_index, field2_index FROM test_table WHERE field1_index = '1'
OR  field2_index = '1'

The reason is that we haven't yet had time to come up with an efficient way to handle this in the general case. (The AND handling is, in comparison, now completely general and works very well.)

For the moment you can solve this very efficiently by using a TEMPORARY table. This type of optimisation is also very good if you are using very complicated queries where the SQL server does the optimisations in the wrong order.

CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE tmp
SELECT field1_index, field2_index FROM test_table WHERE field1_index = '1';
INSERT INTO tmp
SELECT field1_index, field2_index FROM test_table WHERE field2_index = '1';
SELECT * from tmp;
DROP TABLE tmp;

The above way to solve this query is in effect a UNION of two queries. See section 6.4.1.2 UNION Syntax.

3.5.8 Calculating Visits Per Day

The following shows an idea of how you can use the bit group functions to calculate the number of days per month a user has visited a web page.

CREATE TABLE t1 (year YEAR(4), month INT(2) UNSIGNED ZEROFILL,
             day INT(2) UNSIGNED ZEROFILL);
INSERT INTO t1 VALUES(2000,1,1),(2000,1,20),(2000,1,30),(2000,2,2),
            (2000,2,23),(2000,2,23);
SELECT year,month,BIT_COUNT(BIT_OR(1<<day)) AS days FROM t1
       GROUP BY year,month;

Which returns:

+------+-------+------+
| year | month | days |
+------+-------+------+
| 2000 |    01 |    3 |
| 2000 |    02 |    2 |
+------+-------+------+

The above calculates how many different days was used for a given year/month combination, with automatic removal of duplicate entries.

3.5.9 Using AUTO_INCREMENT

The AUTO_INCREMENT attribute can be used to generate a unique identity for new rows:

CREATE TABLE animals (
             id MEDIUMINT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
             name CHAR(30) NOT NULL,
             PRIMARY KEY (id)
             );
INSERT INTO animals (name) VALUES ("dog"),("cat"),("penguin"),
                                  ("lax"),("whale");
SELECT * FROM animals;

Which returns:

+----+---------+
| id | name    |
+----+---------+
|  1 | dog     |
|  2 | cat     |
|  3 | penguin |
|  4 | lax     |
|  5 | whale   |
+----+---------+

You can retrieve the used AUTO_INCREMENT key with the LAST_INSERT_ID() SQL function or the mysql_insert_id() API function. Note: for a multi-row insert, LAST_INSERT_ID()/mysql_insert_id() will actually return the AUTO_INCREMENT key from the first inserted row. This allows multi-row inserts to be reproduced on other servers.

For MyISAM and BDB tables you can specify AUTO_INCREMENT on secondary column in a multi-column key. In this case the generated value for the autoincrement column is calculated as MAX(auto_increment_column)+1) WHERE prefix=given-prefix. This is useful when you want to put data into ordered groups.

CREATE TABLE animals (
             grp ENUM('fish','mammal','bird') NOT NULL,
             id MEDIUMINT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
             name CHAR(30) NOT NULL,
             PRIMARY KEY (grp,id)
             );
INSERT INTO animals (grp,name) VALUES("mammal","dog"),("mammal","cat"),
                  ("bird","penguin"),("fish","lax"),("mammal","whale");
SELECT * FROM animals ORDER BY grp,id;

Which returns:

+--------+----+---------+
| grp    | id | name    |
+--------+----+---------+
| fish   |  1 | lax     |
| mammal |  1 | dog     |
| mammal |  2 | cat     |
| mammal |  3 | whale   |
| bird   |  1 | penguin |
+--------+----+---------+

Note that in this case, the AUTO_INCREMENT value will be reused if you delete the row with the biggest AUTO_INCREMENT value in any group.

3.6 Using mysql in Batch Mode

In the previous sections, you used mysql interactively to enter queries and view the results. You can also run mysql in batch mode. To do this, put the commands you want to run in a file, then tell mysql to read its input from the file:

shell> mysql < batch-file

If you are running mysql under windows and have some special characters in the file that causes problems, you can do:

dos> mysql -e "source batch-file"

If you need to specify connection parameters on the command-line, the command might look like this:

shell> mysql -h host -u user -p < batch-file
Enter password: ********

When you use mysql this way, you are creating a script file, then executing the script.

If you want the script to continue even if you have errors, you should use the --force command-line option.

Why use a script? Here are a few reasons:

The default output format is different (more concise) when you run mysql in batch mode than when you use it interactively. For example, the output of SELECT DISTINCT species FROM pet looks like this when run interactively:

+---------+
| species |
+---------+
| bird    |
| cat     |
| dog     |
| hamster |
| snake   |
+---------+

But like this when run in batch mode:

species
bird
cat
dog
hamster
snake

If you want to get the interactive output format in batch mode, use mysql -t. To echo to the output the commands that are executed, use mysql -vvv.

You can also use scripts in the mysql command-line prompt by using the source command:

mysql> source filename;

3.7 Queries from Twin Project

At Analytikerna and Lentus, we have been doing the systems and field work for a big research project. This project is a collaboration between the Institute of Environmental Medicine at Karolinska Institutet Stockholm and the Section on Clinical Research in Aging and Psychology at the University of Southern California.

The project involves a screening part where all twins in Sweden older than 65 years are interviewed by telephone. Twins who meet certain criteria are passed on to the next stage. In this latter stage, twins who want to participate are visited by a doctor/nurse team. Some of the examinations include physical and neuropsychological examination, laboratory testing, neuroimaging, psychological status assessment, and family history collection. In addition, data are collected on medical and environmental risk factors.

More information about Twin studies can be found at: http://www.imm.ki.se/TWIN/TWINUKW.HTM

The latter part of the project is administered with a web interface written using Perl and MySQL.

Each night all data from the interviews are moved into a MySQL database.

3.7.1 Find all Non-distributed Twins

The following query is used to determine who goes into the second part of the project:

SELECT
        CONCAT(p1.id, p1.tvab) + 0 AS tvid,
        CONCAT(p1.christian_name, " ", p1.surname) AS Name,
        p1.postal_code AS Code,
        p1.city AS City,
        pg.abrev AS Area,
        IF(td.participation = "Aborted", "A", " ") AS A,
        p1.dead AS dead1,
        l.event AS event1,
        td.suspect AS tsuspect1,
        id.suspect AS isuspect1,
        td.severe AS tsevere1,
        id.severe AS isevere1,
        p2.dead AS dead2,
        l2.event AS event2,
        h2.nurse AS nurse2,
        h2.doctor AS doctor2,
        td2.suspect AS tsuspect2,
        id2.suspect AS isuspect2,
        td2.severe AS tsevere2,
        id2.severe AS isevere2,
        l.finish_date
FROM
        twin_project AS tp
        /* For Twin 1 */
        LEFT JOIN twin_data AS td ON tp.id = td.id
                  AND tp.tvab = td.tvab
        LEFT JOIN informant_data AS id ON tp.id = id.id
                  AND tp.tvab = id.tvab
        LEFT JOIN harmony AS h ON tp.id = h.id
                  AND tp.tvab = h.tvab
        LEFT JOIN lentus AS l ON tp.id = l.id
                  AND tp.tvab = l.tvab
        /* For Twin 2 */
        LEFT JOIN twin_data AS td2 ON p2.id = td2.id
                  AND p2.tvab = td2.tvab
        LEFT JOIN informant_data AS id2 ON p2.id = id2.id
                  AND p2.tvab = id2.tvab
        LEFT JOIN harmony AS h2 ON p2.id = h2.id
                  AND p2.tvab = h2.tvab
        LEFT JOIN lentus AS l2 ON p2.id = l2.id
                  AND p2.tvab = l2.tvab,
        person_data AS p1,
        person_data AS p2,
        postal_groups AS pg
WHERE
        /* p1 gets main twin and p2 gets his/her twin. */
        /* ptvab is a field inverted from tvab */
        p1.id = tp.id AND p1.tvab = tp.tvab AND
        p2.id = p1.id AND p2.ptvab = p1.tvab AND
        /* Just the sceening survey */
        tp.survey_no = 5 AND
        /* Skip if partner died before 65 but allow emigration (dead=9) */
        (p2.dead = 0 OR p2.dead = 9 OR
         (p2.dead = 1 AND
          (p2.death_date = 0 OR
           (((TO_DAYS(p2.death_date) - TO_DAYS(p2.birthday)) / 365)
            >= 65))))
        AND
        (
        /* Twin is suspect */
        (td.future_contact = 'Yes' AND td.suspect = 2) OR
        /* Twin is suspect - Informant is Blessed */
        (td.future_contact = 'Yes' AND td.suspect = 1
                                   AND id.suspect = 1) OR
        /* No twin - Informant is Blessed */
        (ISNULL(td.suspect) AND id.suspect = 1
                            AND id.future_contact = 'Yes') OR
        /* Twin broken off - Informant is Blessed */
        (td.participation = 'Aborted'
         AND id.suspect = 1 AND id.future_contact = 'Yes') OR
        /* Twin broken off - No inform - Have partner */
        (td.participation = 'Aborted' AND ISNULL(id.suspect)
                                      AND p2.dead = 0))
        AND
        l.event = 'Finished'
        /* Get at area code */
        AND SUBSTRING(p1.postal_code, 1, 2) = pg.code
        /* Not already distributed */
        AND (h.nurse IS NULL OR h.nurse=00 OR h.doctor=00)
        /* Has not refused or been aborted */
        AND NOT (h.status = 'Refused' OR h.status = 'Aborted'
        OR h.status = 'Died' OR h.status = 'Other')
ORDER BY
        tvid;

Some explanations:

CONCAT(p1.id, p1.tvab) + 0 AS tvid
We want to sort on the concatenated id and tvab in numerical order. Adding 0 to the result causes MySQL to treat the result as a number.
column id
This identifies a pair of twins. It is a key in all tables.
column tvab
This identifies a twin in a pair. It has a value of 1 or 2.
column ptvab
This is an inverse of tvab. When tvab is 1 this is 2, and vice versa. It exists to save typing and to make it easier for MySQL to optimise the query.

This query demonstrates, among other things, how to do lookups on a table from the same table with a join (p1 and p2). In the example, this is used to check whether a twin's partner died before the age of 65. If so, the row is not returned.

All of the above exist in all tables with twin-related information. We have a key on both id,tvab (all tables), and id,ptvab (person_data) to make queries faster.

On our production machine (A 200MHz UltraSPARC), this query returns about 150-200 rows and takes less than one second.

The current number of records in the tables used above:
Table Rows
person_data 71074
lentus 5291
twin_project 5286
twin_data 2012
informant_data 663
harmony 381
postal_groups 100

3.7.2 Show a Table on Twin Pair Status

Each interview ends with a status code called event. The query shown here is used to display a table over all twin pairs combined by event. This indicates in how many pairs both twins are finished, in how many pairs one twin is finished and the other refused, and so on.

SELECT
        t1.event,
        t2.event,
        COUNT(*)
FROM
        lentus AS t1,
        lentus AS t2,
        twin_project AS tp
WHERE
        /* We are looking at one pair at a time */
        t1.id = tp.id
        AND t1.tvab=tp.tvab
        AND t1.id = t2.id
        /* Just the sceening survey */
        AND tp.survey_no = 5
        /* This makes each pair only appear once */
        AND t1.tvab='1' AND t2.tvab='2'
GROUP BY
        t1.event, t2.event;

3.8 Using MySQL with Apache

There are programs that let you authenticate your users from a MySQL database and also let you log your log files into a MySQL table.

You can change the Apache logging format to be easily readable by MySQL by putting the following into the Apache configuration file:

LogFormat \
        "\"%h\",%{%Y%m%d%H%M%S}t,%>s,\"%b\",\"%{Content-Type}o\",  \
        \"%U\",\"%{Referer}i\",\"%{User-Agent}i\""

In MySQL you can do something like this:

LOAD DATA INFILE '/local/access_log' INTO TABLE table_name
FIELDS TERMINATED BY ',' OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY '"' ESCAPED BY '\\'

4 Database Administration

4.1 Configuring MySQL

4.1.1 mysqld Command-line Options

In most cases you should manage mysqld options through option files. See section 4.1.2 `my.cnf' Option Files.

mysqld and mysqld.server reads options from the mysqld and server groups. mysqld_safe read options from the mysqld, server, mysqld_safe and safe_mysqld groups. An embedded MySQL server usually reads options from the server, embedded and xxxxx_SERVER, where xxxxx is the name of the application.

mysqld accepts the following command-line options. For a full list execute mysqld --help.

--ansi
Use ANSI SQL syntax instead of MySQL syntax. See section 1.7.2 Running MySQL in ANSI Mode.
-b, --basedir=path
Path to installation directory. All paths are usually resolved relative to this.
--big-tables
Allow big result sets by saving all temporary sets on file. It solves most 'table full' errors, but also slows down the queries where in-memory tables would suffice. Since Version 3.23.2, MySQL is able to solve it automatically by using memory for small temporary tables and switching to disk tables where necessary.
--bind-address=IP
IP address to bind to.
--console
Write the error log messages to stderr/stdout even if --log-error is specified. On windows mysqld will not close the console screen if this option is used.
--character-sets-dir=path
Directory where character sets are. See section 4.6.1 The Character Set Used for Data and Sorting.
--chroot=path
Put mysqld daemon in chroot environment at startup. Recommended security measure since MySQL 4.0 (MySQL 3.23 is not able to provide 100% closed chroot jail). It somewhat limits LOAD DATA INFILE and SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE though.
--core-file
Write a core file if mysqld dies. For some systems you must also specify --core-file-size to safe_mysqld. See section 4.7.2 safe_mysqld, The Wrapper Around mysqld. Note that on some systems, like Solaris, you will not get a core file if you are also using the --user option.
-h, --datadir=path
Path to the database root.
--debug[...]=
If MySQL is configured with --with-debug, you can use this option to get a trace file of what mysqld is doing. See section E.1.2 Creating Trace Files.
--default-character-set=charset
Set the default character set. See section 4.6.1 The Character Set Used for Data and Sorting.
--default-table-type=type
Set the default table type for tables. See section 7 MySQL Table Types.
--delay-key-write[= OFF | ON | ALL]
How MyISAM DELAYED KEYS should be used. See section 5.5.2 Tuning Server Parameters.
--delay-key-write-for-all-tables; In MySQL 4.0.3 you should use --delay-key-write=ALL instead.
Don't flush key buffers between writes for any MyISAM table. See section 5.5.2 Tuning Server Parameters.
--des-key-file=filename
Read the default keys used by DES_ENCRYPT() and DES_DECRYPT() from this file.
--enable-external-locking (was --enable-locking)
Enable system locking. Note that if you use this option on a system on which lockd does not fully work (as on Linux), you will easily get mysqld to deadlock.
--enable-named-pipe
Enable support for named pipes (only on NT/Win2000/XP).
-T, --exit-info
This is a bit mask of different flags one can use for debugging the mysqld server; one should not use this option if one doesn't know exactly what it does!
--flush
Flush all changes to disk after each SQL command. Normally MySQL only does a write of all changes to disk after each SQL command and lets the operating system handle the syncing to disk. See section A.4.1 What To Do If MySQL Keeps Crashing.
-?, --help
Display short help and exit.
--init-file=file
Read SQL commands from this file at startup.
-L, --language=...
Client error messages in given language. May be given as a full path. See section 4.6.2 Non-English Error Messages.
-l, --log[=file]
Log connections and queries to file. See section 4.9.2 The General Query Log.
--log-bin=[file]
Log all queries that changes data to the file. Used for backup and replication. See section 4.9.4 The Binary Update Log.
--log-bin-index[=file]
Index file for binary log file names. See section 4.9.4 The Binary Update Log.
--log-error[=file]
Log errors and startup messages to this file. See section 4.9.1 The Error Log.
--log-isam[=file]
Log all ISAM/MyISAM changes to file (only used when debugging ISAM/MyISAM).
--log-slow-queries[=file]
Log all queries that have taken more than long_query_time seconds to execute to file. See section 4.9.5 The Slow Query Log.
--log-update[=file]
Log updates to file.# where # is a unique number if not given. See section 4.9.3 The Update Log.
--log-long-format
Log some extra information to update log. If you are using --log-slow-queries then queries that are not using indexes are logged to the slow query log.
--low-priority-updates
Table-modifying operations (INSERT/DELETE/UPDATE) will have lower priority than selects. It can also be done via {INSERT | REPLACE | UPDATE | DELETE} LOW_PRIORITY ... to lower the priority of only one query, or by SET LOW_PRIORITY_UPDATES=1 to change the priority in one thread. See section 5.3.2 Table Locking Issues.
--memlock
Lock the mysqld process in memory. This works only if your system supports the mlockall() system call (like Solaris). This may help if you have a problem where the operating system is causing mysqld to swap on disk.
--myisam-recover [=option[,option...]]]
Option is any combination of DEFAULT, BACKUP, FORCE or QUICK. You can also set this explicitly to "" if you want to disable this option. If this option is used, mysqld will on open check if the table is marked as crashed or if the table wasn't closed properly. (The last option only works if you are running with --skip-external-locking.) If this is the case mysqld will run check on the table. If the table was corrupted, mysqld will attempt to repair it. The following options affects how the repair works.
Option Description
DEFAULT The same as not giving any option to --myisam-recover.
BACKUP If the data table was changed during recover, save a backup of the `table_name.MYD' datafile as `table_name-datetime.BAK'.
FORCE Run recover even if we will lose more than one row from the .MYD file.
QUICK Don't check the rows in the table if there aren't any delete blocks.
Before a table is automatically repaired, MySQL will add a note about this in the error log. If you want to be able to recover from most things without user intervention, you should use the options BACKUP,FORCE. This will force a repair of a table even if some rows would be deleted, but it will keep the old datafile as a backup so that you can later examine what happened.
--pid-file=path
Path to pid file used by safe_mysqld.
-P, --port=...
Port number to listen for TCP/IP connections.
-o, --old-protocol
Use the 3.20 protocol for compatibility with some very old clients. See section 2.5.5 Upgrading from Version 3.20 to Version 3.21.
--one-thread
Only use one thread (for debugging under Linux). See section E.1 Debugging a MySQL server.
-O, --set-variable var=option
Give a variable a value. --help lists variables. You can find a full description for all variables in the SHOW VARIABLES section in this manual. See section 4.5.6.4 SHOW VARIABLES. The tuning server parameters section includes information of how to optimise these. Please note that --set-variable is deprecated since MySQL 4.0, just use --var=option on its own. See section 5.5.2 Tuning Server Parameters. In MySQL 4.0.2 one can set a variable directly with --variable-name=option and set-variable is not anymore needed in option files. If you want to restrict the maximum value a startup option can be set to with SET, you can define this by using the --maximum-variable-name command line option. See section 5.5.6 SET Syntax. Note that when setting a variable to a value, MySQL may automatically correct it to stay within a given range and also adjusts the value a little to fix for the used algorithm.
--safe-mode
Skip some optimise stages.
--safe-show-database
With this option, the SHOW DATABASES command returns only those databases for which the user has some kind of privilege. From version 4.0.2 this option is deprecated and doesn't do anything (the option is enabled by default) as we now have the SHOW DATABASES privilege. See section 4.3.1 GRANT and REVOKE Syntax.
--safe-user-create
If this is enabled, a user can't create new users with the GRANT command, if the user doesn't have INSERT privilege to the mysql.user table or any column in this table.
--skip-bdb
Disable usage of BDB tables. This will save memory and may speed up some things.
--skip-concurrent-insert
Turn off the ability to select and insert at the same time on MyISAM tables. (This is only to be used if you think you have found a bug in this feature.)
--skip-delay-key-write; In MySQL 4.0.3 you should use --delay-key-write=OFF instead.
Ignore the DELAY_KEY_WRITE option for all tables. See section 5.5.2 Tuning Server Parameters.
--skip-grant-tables
This option causes the server not to use the privilege system at all. This gives everyone full access to all databases! (You can tell a running server to start using the grant tables again by executing mysqladmin flush-privileges or mysqladmin reload.)
--skip-host-cache
Never use host name cache for faster name-ip resolution, but query DNS server on every connect instead. See section 5.5.5 How MySQL uses DNS.
--skip-innodb
Disable usage of Innodb tables. This will save memory and disk space and speed up some things.
--skip-external-locking (was --skip-locking)
Don't use system locking. To use isamchk or myisamchk you must shut down the server. See section 1.2.3 How Stable Is MySQL?. Note that in MySQL Version 3.23 you can use REPAIR and CHECK to repair/check MyISAM tables.
--skip-name-resolve
Hostnames are not resolved. All Host column values in the grant tables must be IP numbers or localhost. See section 5.5.5 How MySQL uses DNS.
--skip-networking
Don't listen for TCP/IP connections at all. All interaction with mysqld must be made via Unix sockets. This option is highly recommended for systems where only local requests are allowed. See section 5.5.5 How MySQL uses DNS.
--skip-new
Don't use new, possible wrong routines.
--skip-symlink
Don't delete or rename files that a symlinked file in the data directory points to.
--skip-safemalloc
If MySQL is configured with --with-debug=full, all programs will check the memory for overruns for every memory allocation and memory freeing. As this checking is very slow, you can avoid this, when you don't need memory checking, by using this option.
--skip-show-database
Don't allow SHOW DATABASES command, unless the user has the SHOW DATABASES privilege. From version 4.0.2 you should no longer need this option, since access can now be granted specifically with the SHOW DATABASES privilege.
--skip-stack-trace
Don't write stack traces. This option is useful when you are running mysqld under a debugger. On some systems you also have to use this option to get a core file. See section E.1 Debugging a MySQL server.
--skip-thread-priority
Disable using thread priorities for faster response time.
--socket=path
Socket file to use for local connections instead of default /tmp/mysql.sock.
--sql-mode=option[,option[,option...]]
Option can be any combination of: REAL_AS_FLOAT, PIPES_AS_CONCAT, ANSI_QUOTES, IGNORE_SPACE, SERIALIZE, ONLY_FULL_GROUP_BY. It can also be empty ("") if you want to reset this. By specifying all of the above options is same as using --ansi. With this option one can turn on only needed SQL modes. See section 1.7.2 Running MySQL in ANSI Mode.
--temp-pool
Using this option will cause most temporary files created to use a small set of names, rather than a unique name for each new file. This is to work around a problem in the Linux kernel dealing with creating a bunch of new files with different names. With the old behaviour, Linux seems to 'leak' memory, as it's being allocated to the directory entry cache instead of the disk cache.
--transaction-isolation= { READ-UNCOMMITTED | READ-COMMITTED | REPEATABLE-READ | SERIALIZABLE }
Sets the default transaction isolation level. See section 6.7.3 SET TRANSACTION Syntax.
-t, --tmpdir=path
Path for temporary files. It may be useful if your default /tmp directory resides on a partition too small to hold temporary tables. Starting from MySQL 4.1, this option accepts several paths separated by colon : (semicolon ; on Windows). They will be used in round-robin fashion.
-u, --user= [user_name | userid]
Run mysqld daemon as user user_name or userid (numeric). This option is mandatory when starting mysqld as root. Starting from MySQL 3.23.56 and 4.0.12: To avoid a possible security hole where a user adds an --user=root option to some `my.cnf' file, mysqld will only use the first --user option specified and give a warning if there are multiple options. Note that `/etc/my.cnf' and `datadir/my.cnf' may override a command line option - therefore it is recommended to put this option in `/etc/my.cnf'.
-V, --version
Output version information and exit.
-W, --log-warnings (Was --warnings)
Print out warnings like Aborted connection... to the `.err' file. See section A.2.9 Communication Errors / Aborted Connection.

One can change most values for a running server with the SET command. See section 5.5.6 SET Syntax.

4.1.2 `my.cnf' Option Files

MySQL can, since Version 3.22, read default startup options for the server and for clients from option files.

MySQL reads default options from the following files on Unix:

Filename Purpose
/etc/my.cnf Global options
DATADIR/my.cnf Server-specific options
defaults-extra-file The file specified with --defaults-extra-file=#
~/.my.cnf User-specific options

DATADIR is the MySQL data directory (typically `/usr/local/mysql/data' for a binary installation or `/usr/local/var' for a source installation). Note that this is the directory that was specified at configuration time, not the one specified with --datadir when mysqld starts up! (--datadir has no effect on where the server looks for option files, because it looks for them before it processes any command-line arguments.)

MySQL reads default options from the following files on Windows:

Filename Purpose
windows-system-directory\my.ini Global options
C:\my.cnf Global options

Note that on Windows, you should specify all paths with / instead of \. If you use \, you need to specify this twice, as \ is the escape character in MySQL.

MySQL tries to read option files in the order listed above. If multiple option files exist, an option specified in a file read later takes precedence over the same option specified in a file read earlier. Options specified on the command-line take precedence over options specified in any option file. Some options can be specified using environment variables. Options specified on the command-line or in option files take precedence over environment variable values. See section F Environment Variables.

The following programs support option files: mysql, mysqladmin, mysqld, mysqld_safe, mysql.server, mysqldump, mysqlimport, mysqlshow, mysqlcheck, myisamchk, and myisampack.

Any long option that may be given on the command-line when running a MySQL program can be given in an option file as well (without the leading double dash). Run the program with --help to get a list of available options.

An option file can contain lines of the following forms:

#comment
Comment lines start with `#' or `;'. Empty lines are ignored.
[group]
group is the name of the program or group for which you want to set options. After a group line, any option or set-variable lines apply to the named group until the end of the option file or another group line is given.
option
This is equivalent to --option on the command-line.
option=value
This is equivalent to --option=value on the command-line.
set-variable = variable=value
This is equivalent to --set-variable variable=value on the command-line. This syntax must be used to set a mysqld variable. Please note that --set-variable is deprecated since MySQL 4.0, just use --variable=value on its own.

The client group allows you to specify options that apply to all MySQL clients (not mysqld). This is the perfect group to use to specify the password you use to connect to the server. (But make sure the option file is readable and writable only by yourself.)

Note that for options and values, all leading and trailing blanks are automatically deleted. You may use the escape sequences `\b', `\t', `\n', `\r', `\\', and `\s' in your value string (`\s' == blank).

Here is a typical global option file:

[client]
port=3306
socket=/tmp/mysql.sock

[mysqld]
port=3306
socket=/tmp/mysql.sock
set-variable = key_buffer_size=16M
set-variable = max_allowed_packet=1M

[mysqldump]
quick

Here is typical user option file:

[client]
# The following password will be sent to all standard MySQL clients
password=my_password

[mysql]
no-auto-rehash
set-variable = connect_timeout=2

[mysqlhotcopy]
interactive-timeout

If you have a source distribution, you will find sample configuration files named `my-xxxx.cnf' in the `support-files' directory. If you have a binary distribution, look in the `DIR/support-files' directory, where DIR is the pathname to the MySQL installation directory (typically `/usr/local/mysql'). Currently there are sample configuration files for small, medium, large, and very large systems. You can copy `my-xxxx.cnf' to your home directory (rename the copy to `.my.cnf') to experiment with this.

All MySQL clients that support option files support the following options:

Option Description
--no-defaults Don't read any option files.
--print-defaults Print the program name and all options that it will get.
--defaults-file=full-path-to-default-file Only use the given configuration file.
--defaults-extra-file=full-path-to-default-file Read this configuration file after the global configuration file but before the user configuration file.

Note that the above options must be first on the command-line to work! --print-defaults may however be used directly after the --defaults-xxx-file commands.

Note for developers: Option file handling is implemented simply by processing all matching options (that is, options in the appropriate group) before any command-line arguments. This works nicely for programs that use the last instance of an option that is specified multiple times. If you have an old program that handles multiply-specified options this way but doesn't read option files, you need add only two lines to give it that capability. Check the source code of any of the standard MySQL clients to see how to do this.

In shell scripts you can use the `my_print_defaults' command to parse the config files:


shell> my_print_defaults client mysql
--port=3306
--socket=/tmp/mysql.sock
--no-auto-rehash

The above output contains all options for the groups 'client' and 'mysql'.

4.1.3 Installing Many Servers on the Same Machine

In some cases you may want to have many different mysqld daemons (servers) running on the same machine. You may for example want to run a new version of MySQL for testing together with an old version that is in production. Another case is when you want to give different users access to different mysqld servers that they manage themselves.

One way to get a new server running is by starting it with a different socket and port as follows:

shell> MYSQL_UNIX_PORT=/tmp/mysqld-new.sock
shell> MYSQL_TCP_PORT=3307
shell> export MYSQL_UNIX_PORT MYSQL_TCP_PORT
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db
shell> bin/safe_mysqld &

The environment variables appendix includes a list of other environment variables you can use to affect mysqld. See section F Environment Variables.

The above is the quick and dirty way that one commonly uses for testing. The nice thing with this is that all connections you do in the above shell will automatically be directed to the new running server!

If you need to do this more permanently, you should create an option file for each server. See section 4.1.2 `my.cnf' Option Files. In your startup script that is executed at boot time you should specify for both servers:

safe_mysqld --defaults-file=path-to-option-file

At least the following options should be different per server:

The following options should be different, if they are used:

If you want more performance, you can also specify the following differently:

See section 4.1.1 mysqld Command-line Options. Starting from MySQL 4.1, tmpdir can be set to a list of paths separated by colon : (semicolon ; on Windows). They will be used in round-robin fashion. This feature can be used to spread load between several physical disks.

If you are installing binary MySQL versions (.tar files) and start them with ./bin/safe_mysqld then in most cases the only option you need to add/change is the socket and port argument to safe_mysqld.

See section 4.1.4 Running Multiple MySQL Servers on the Same Machine.

4.1.4 Running Multiple MySQL Servers on the Same Machine

There are circumstances when you might want to run multiple servers on the same machine. For example, you might want to test a new MySQL release while leaving your existing production setup undisturbed. Or you might be an Internet service provider that wants to provide independent MySQL installations for different customers.

If you want to run multiple servers, the easiest way is to compile the servers with different TCP/IP ports and socket files so they are not both listening to the same TCP/IP port or socket file. See section 4.7.3 mysqld_multi, A Program for Managing Multiple MySQL Servers.

Assume an existing server is configured for the default port number and socket file. Then configure the new server with a configure command something like this:

shell> ./configure  --with-tcp-port=port_number \
             --with-unix-socket-path=file_name \
             --prefix=/usr/local/mysql-3.22.9

Here port_number and file_name should be different from the default port number and socket file pathname, and the --prefix value should specify an installation directory different from the one under which the existing MySQL installation is located.

You can check the socket used by any currently executing MySQL server with this command:

shell> mysqladmin -h hostname --port=port_number variables

Note that if you specify ``localhost'' as a hostname, mysqladmin will default to using Unix sockets instead of TCP/IP.

In MySQL 4.1 you can also specify the protocol to use by using the --protocol=(TCP | SOCKET | PIPE | MEMORY) option.

If you have a MySQL server running on the port you used, you will get a list of some of the most important configurable variables in MySQL, including the socket name.

You don't have to recompile a new MySQL server just to start with a different port and socket. You can change the port and socket to be used by specifying them at runtime as options to safe_mysqld:

shell> /path/to/safe_mysqld --socket=file_name --port=port_number

mysqld_multi can also take safe_mysqld (or mysqld) as an argument and pass the options from a configuration file to safe_mysqld and further to mysqld.

If you run the new server on the same database directory as another server with logging enabled, you should also specify the name of the log files to safe_mysqld with --log, --log-update, or --log-slow-queries. Otherwise, both servers may be trying to write to the same log file.

Warning: normally you should never have two servers that update data in the same database! If your OS doesn't support fault-free system locking, this may lead to unpleasant surprises!

If you want to use another database directory for the second server, you can use the --datadir=path option to safe_mysqld.

Note also that starting several MySQL servers (mysqlds) in different machines and letting them access one data directory over NFS is generally a bad idea! The problem is that the NFS will become the bottleneck with the speed. It is not meant for such use. And last but not least, you would still have to come up with a solution how to make sure that two or more mysqlds are not interfering with each other. At the moment there is no platform that would 100% reliable do the file locking (lockd daemon usually) in every situation. Yet there would be one more possible risk with NFS; it would make the work even more complicated for lockd daemon to handle. So make it easy for your self and forget about the idea. The working solution is to have one computer with an operating system that efficiently handles threads and have several CPUs in it.

When you want to connect to a MySQL server that is running with a different port than the port that is compiled into your client, you can use one of the following methods:

4.2 General Security Issues and the MySQL Access Privilege System

MySQL has an advanced but non-standard security/privilege system. This section describes how it works.

4.2.1 General Security Guidelines

Anyone using MySQL on a computer connected to the Internet should read this section to avoid the most common security mistakes.

In discussing security, we emphasise the necessity of fully protecting the entire server host (not simply the MySQL server) against all types of applicable attacks: eavesdropping, altering, playback, and denial of service. We do not cover all aspects of availability and fault tolerance here.

MySQL uses security based on Access Control Lists (ACLs) for all connections, queries, and other operations that a user may attempt to perform. There is also some support for SSL-encrypted connections between MySQL clients and servers. Many of the concepts discussed here are not specific to MySQL at all; the same general ideas apply to almost all applications.

When running MySQL, follow these guidelines whenever possible:

4.2.2 How to Make MySQL Secure Against Crackers

When you connect to a MySQL server, you normally should use a password. The password is not transmitted in clear text over the connection, however the encryption algorithm is not very strong, and with some effort a clever attacker can crack the password if he is able to sniff the traffic between the client and the server. If the connection between the client and the server goes through an untrusted network, you should use an SSH tunnel to encrypt the communication.

All other information is transferred as text that can be read by anyone who is able to watch the connection. If you are concerned about this, you can use the compressed protocol (in MySQL Version 3.22 and above) to make things much harder. To make things even more secure you should use ssh. You can find an Open Source ssh client at http://www.openssh.org/, and a commercial ssh client at http://www.ssh.com/. With this, you can get an encrypted TCP/IP connection between a MySQL server and a MySQL client.

If you are using MySQL 4.0, you can also use internal OpenSSL support. See section 4.3.9 Using Secure Connections.

To make a MySQL system secure, you should strongly consider the following suggestions:

4.2.3 Startup Options for mysqld Concerning Security

The following mysqld options affect security:

--local-infile[=(0|1)]
If one uses --local-infile=0 then one can't use LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE.
--safe-show-database
With this option, the SHOW DATABASES command returns only those databases for which the user has some kind of privilege. From version 4.0.2 this option is deprecated and doesn't do anything (the option is enabled by default) as we now have the SHOW DATABASES privilege. See section 4.3.1 GRANT and REVOKE Syntax.
--safe-user-create
If this is enabled, an user can't create new users with the GRANT command, if the user doesn't have the INSERT privilege for the mysql.user table. If you want to give a user access to just create new users with those privileges that the user has right to grant, you should give the user the following privilege:
mysql> GRANT INSERT(user) ON mysql.user TO 'user'@'hostname';
This will ensure that the user can't change any privilege columns directly, but has to use the GRANT command to give privileges to other users.
--skip-grant-tables
This option causes the server not to use the privilege system at all. This gives everyone full access to all databases! (You can tell a running server to start using the grant tables again by executing mysqladmin flush-privileges or mysqladmin reload.)
--skip-name-resolve
Hostnames are not resolved. All Host column values in the grant tables must be IP numbers or localhost.
--skip-networking
Don't allow TCP/IP connections over the network. All connections to mysqld must be made via Unix sockets. This option is unsuitable when using a MySQL version prior to 3.23.27 with the MIT-pthreads package, because Unix sockets were not supported by MIT-pthreads at that time.
--skip-show-database
Don't allow SHOW DATABASES command, unless the user has the SHOW DATABASES privilege. From version 4.0.2 you should no longer need this option, since access can now be granted specifically with the SHOW DATABASES privilege.

4.2.4 Security issues with LOAD DATA LOCAL

In MySQL 3.23.49 and MySQL 4.0.2, we added some new options to deal with possible security issues when it comes to LOAD DATA LOCAL.

There are two possible problems with supporting this command:

As the reading of the file is initiated from the server, one could theoretically create a patched MySQL server that could read any file on the client machine that the current user has read access to, when the client issues a query against the table.

In a web environment where the clients are connecting from a web server, a user could use LOAD DATA LOCAL to read any files that the web server process has read access to (assuming a user could run any command against the SQL server).

There are two separate fixes for this:

If you don't configure MySQL with --enable-local-infile, then LOAD DATA LOCAL will be disabled by all clients, unless one calls mysql_options(... MYSQL_OPT_LOCAL_INFILE, 0) in the client. See section 8.4.3.163 mysql_options().

For the mysql command-line client, LOAD DATA LOCAL can be enabled by specifying the option --local-infile[=1], or disabled with --local-infile=0.

By default, all MySQL clients and libraries are compiled with --enable-local-infile, to be compatible with MySQL 3.23.48 and before.

One can disable all LOAD DATA LOCAL commands in the MySQL server by starting mysqld with --local-infile=0.

In the case that LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE is disabled in the server or the client, you will get the error message (1148):

The used command is not allowed with this MySQL version

4.2.5 What the Privilege System Does

The primary function of the MySQL privilege system is to authenticate a user connecting from a given host, and to associate that user with privileges on a database such as SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE.

Additional functionality includes the ability to have an anonymous user and to grant privileges for MySQL-specific functions such as LOAD DATA INFILE and administrative operations.

4.2.6 How the Privilege System Works

The MySQL privilege system ensures that all users may do exactly the things that they are supposed to be allowed to do. When you connect to a MySQL server, your identity is determined by the host from which you connect and the user name you specify. The system grants privileges according to your identity and what you want to do.

MySQL considers both your hostname and user name in identifying you because there is little reason to assume that a given user name belongs to the same person everywhere on the Internet. For example, the user joe who connects from office.com need not be the same person as the user joe who connects from elsewhere.com. MySQL handles this by allowing you to distinguish users on different hosts that happen to have the same name: you can grant joe one set of privileges for connections from office.com, and a different set of privileges for connections from elsewhere.com.

MySQL access control involves two stages:

The server uses the user, db, and host tables in the mysql database at both stages of access control. The fields in these grant tables are shown here:

Table name user db host
Scope fields Host Host Host
User Db Db
Password User
Privilege fields Select_priv Select_priv Select_priv
Insert_priv Insert_priv Insert_priv
Update_priv Update_priv Update_priv
Delete_priv Delete_priv Delete_priv
Index_priv Index_priv Index_priv
Alter_priv Alter_priv Alter_priv
Create_priv Create_priv Create_priv
Drop_priv Drop_priv Drop_priv
Grant_priv Grant_priv Grant_priv
References_priv
Reload_priv
Shutdown_priv
Process_priv
File_priv

For the second stage of access control (request verification), the server may, if the request involves tables, additionally consult the tables_priv and columns_priv tables. The fields in these tables are shown here:

Table name tables_priv columns_priv
Scope fields Host Host
Db Db
User User
Table_name Table_name
Column_name
Privilege fields Table_priv Column_priv
Column_priv
Other fields Timestamp Timestamp
Grantor

Each grant table contains scope fields and privilege fields.

Scope fields determine the scope of each entry in the tables, that is, the context in which the entry applies. For example, a user table entry with Host and User values of 'thomas.loc.gov' and 'bob' would be used for authenticating connections made to the server by bob from the host thomas.loc.gov. Similarly, a db table entry with Host, User, and Db fields of 'thomas.loc.gov', 'bob' and 'reports' would be used when bob connects from the host thomas.loc.gov to access the reports database. The tables_priv and columns_priv tables contain scope fields indicating tables or table/column combinations to which each entry applies.

For access-checking purposes, comparisons of Host values are case-insensitive. User, Password, Db, and Table_name values are case-sensitive. Column_name values are case-insensitive in MySQL Version 3.22.12 or later.

Privilege fields indicate the privileges granted by a table entry, that is, what operations can be performed. The server combines the information in the various grant tables to form a complete description of a user's privileges. The rules used to do this are described in section 4.2.10 Access Control, Stage 2: Request Verification.

Scope fields are strings, declared as shown here; the default value for each is the empty string:

Field name Type Notes
Host CHAR(60)
User CHAR(16)
Password CHAR(16)
Db CHAR(64) (CHAR(60) for the tables_priv and columns_priv tables)
Table_name CHAR(60)
Column_name CHAR(60)

In the user, db and host tables, all privilege fields are declared as ENUM('N','Y')@-each can have a value of 'N' or 'Y', and the default value is 'N'.

In the tables_priv and columns_priv tables, the privilege fields are declared as SET fields:

Table name Field name Possible set elements
tables_priv Table_priv 'Select', 'Insert', 'Update', 'Delete', 'Create', 'Drop', 'Grant', 'References', 'Index', 'Alter'
tables_priv Column_priv 'Select', 'Insert', 'Update', 'References'
columns_priv Column_priv 'Select', 'Insert', 'Update', 'References'

Briefly, the server uses the grant tables like this:

Note that administrative privileges (RELOAD, SHUTDOWN, etc.) are specified only in the user table. This is because administrative operations are operations on the server itself and are not database-specific, so there is no reason to list such privileges in the other grant tables. In fact, only the user table need be consulted to determine whether you can perform an administrative operation.

The FILE privilege is specified only in the user table, too. It is not an administrative privilege as such, but your ability to read or write files on the server host is independent of the database you are accessing.

The mysqld server reads the contents of the grant tables once, when it starts up. Changes to the grant tables take effect as indicated in section 4.3.3 When Privilege Changes Take Effect.

When you modify the contents of the grant tables, it is a good idea to make sure that your changes set up privileges the way you want. For help in diagnosing problems, see section 4.2.11 Causes of Access denied Errors. For advice on security issues, see section 4.2.2 How to Make MySQL Secure Against Crackers.

A useful diagnostic tool is the mysqlaccess script, which Yves Carlier has provided for the MySQL distribution. Invoke mysqlaccess with the --help option to find out how it works. Note that mysqlaccess checks access using only the user, db and host tables. It does not check table- or column-level privileges.

4.2.7 Privileges Provided by MySQL

Information about user privileges is stored in the user, db, host, tables_priv, and columns_priv tables in the mysql database (that is, in the database named mysql). The MySQL server reads the contents of these tables when it starts up and under the circumstances indicated in section 4.3.3 When Privilege Changes Take Effect.

The names used in this manual to refer to the privileges provided by MySQL version 4.0.2 are shown here, along with the table column name associated with each privilege in the grant tables and the context in which the privilege applies:

Privilege Column Context
ALTER Alter_priv tables
DELETE Delete_priv tables
INDEX Index_priv tables
INSERT Insert_priv tables
SELECT Select_priv tables
UPDATE Update_priv tables
CREATE Create_priv databases, tables, or indexes
DROP Drop_priv databases or tables
GRANT Grant_priv databases or tables
REFERENCES References_priv databases or tables
CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES Create_tmp_table_priv server administration
EXECUTE Execute_priv server administration
FILE File_priv file access on server
LOCK TABLES Lock_tables_priv server administration
PROCESS Process_priv server administration
RELOAD Reload_priv server administration
REPLICATION CLIENT Repl_client_priv server administration
REPLICATION SLAVE Repl_slave_priv server administration
SHOW DATABASES Show_db_priv server administration
SHUTDOWN Shutdown_priv server administration
SUPER Super_priv server administration

The SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE privileges allow you to perform operations on rows in existing tables in a database.

SELECT statements require the SELECT privilege only if they actually retrieve rows from a table. You can execute certain SELECT statements even without permission to access any of the databases on the server. For example, you could use the mysql client as a simple calculator:

mysql> SELECT 1+1;
mysql> SELECT PI()*2;

The INDEX privilege allows you to create or drop (remove) indexes.

The ALTER privilege allows you to use ALTER TABLE.

The CREATE and DROP privileges allow you to create new databases and tables, or to drop (remove) existing databases and tables.

Note that if you grant the DROP privilege for the mysql database to a user, that user can drop the database in which the MySQL access privileges are stored!

The GRANT privilege allows you to give to other users those privileges you yourself possess.

The FILE privilege gives you permission to read and write files on the server using the LOAD DATA INFILE and SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE statements. Any user to whom this privilege is granted can read any world readable file accessable by the MySQL server and create a new world readable file in any directory where the MySQL server can write. The user can also read any file in the current database directory. The user can however not change any existing file.

The remaining privileges are used for administrative operations, which are performed using the mysqladmin program. The table here shows which mysqladmin commands each administrative privilege allows you to execute:

Privilege Commands permitted to privilege holders
RELOAD reload, refresh, flush-privileges, flush-hosts, flush-logs, and flush-tables
SHUTDOWN shutdown
PROCESS processlist
SUPER kill

The reload command tells the server to re-read the grant tables. The refresh command flushes all tables and opens and closes the log files. flush-privileges is a synonym for reload. The other flush-* commands perform functions similar to refresh but are more limited in scope, and may be preferable in some instances. For example, if you want to flush just the log files, flush-logs is a better choice than refresh.

The shutdown command shuts down the server.

The processlist command displays information about the threads executing within the server. The kill command kills server threads. You can always display or kill your own threads, but you need the PROCESS privilege to display and SUPER privilege to kill threads initiated by other users. See section 4.5.5 KILL Syntax.

It is a good idea in general to grant privileges only to those users who need them, but you should exercise particular caution in granting certain privileges:

There are some things that you cannot do with the MySQL privilege system:

4.2.8 Connecting to the MySQL Server

MySQL client programs generally require that you specify connection parameters when you want to access a MySQL server: the host you want to connect to, your user name, and your password. For example, the mysql client can be started like this (optional arguments are enclosed between `[' and `]'):

shell> mysql [-h host_name] [-u user_name] [-pyour_pass]

Alternate forms of the -h, -u, and -p options are --host=host_name, --user=user_name, and --password=your_pass. Note that there is no space between -p or --password= and the password following it.

Note: Specifying a password on the command-line is not secure! Any user on your system may then find out your password by typing a command like: ps auxww. See section 4.1.2 `my.cnf' Option Files.

mysql uses default values for connection parameters that are missing from the command-line:

Thus, for a Unix user joe, the following commands are equivalent:

shell> mysql -h localhost -u joe
shell> mysql -h localhost
shell> mysql -u joe
shell> mysql

Other MySQL clients behave similarly.

On Unix systems, you can specify different default values to be used when you make a connection, so that you need not enter them on the command-line each time you invoke a client program. This can be done in a couple of ways:

4.2.9 Access Control, Stage 1: Connection Verification

When you attempt to connect to a MySQL server, the server accepts or rejects the connection based on your identity and whether you can verify your identity by supplying the correct password. If not, the server denies access to you completely. Otherwise, the server accepts the connection, then enters Stage 2 and waits for requests.

Your identity is based on two pieces of information:

Identity checking is performed using the three user table scope fields (Host, User, and Password). The server accepts the connection only if a user table entry matches your hostname and user name, and you supply the correct password.

Values in the user table scope fields may be specified as follows:

Non-blank Password values represent encrypted passwords. MySQL does not store passwords in plaintext form for anyone to see. Rather, the password supplied by a user who is attempting to connect is encrypted (using the PASSWORD() function). The encrypted password is then used when the client/server is checking if the password is correct. (This is done without the encrypted password ever traveling over the connection.) Note that from MySQL's point of view the encrypted password is the REAL password, so you should not give anyone access to it! In particular, don't give normal users read access to the tables in the mysql database!

The examples here show how various combinations of Host and User values in user table entries apply to incoming connections:

Host value User value Connections matched by entry
'thomas.loc.gov' 'fred' fred, connecting from thomas.loc.gov
'thomas.loc.gov' '' Any user, connecting from thomas.loc.gov
'%' 'fred' fred, connecting from any host
'%' '' Any user, connecting from any host
'%.loc.gov' 'fred' fred, connecting from any host in the loc.gov domain
'x.y.%' 'fred' fred, connecting from x.y.net, x.y.com,x.y.edu, etc. (this is probably not useful)
'144.155.166.177' 'fred' fred, connecting from the host with IP address 144.155.166.177
'144.155.166.%' 'fred' fred, connecting from any host in the 144.155.166 class C subnet
'144.155.166.0/255.255.255.0' 'fred' Same as previous example

Because you can use IP wildcard values in the Host field (for example, '144.155.166.%' to match every host on a subnet), there is the possibility that someone might try to exploit this capability by naming a host 144.155.166.somewhere.com. To foil such attempts, MySQL disallows matching on hostnames that start with digits and a dot. Thus, if you have a host named something like 1.2.foo.com, its name will never match the Host column of the grant tables. Only an IP number can match an IP wildcard value.

An incoming connection may be matched by more than one entry in the user table. For example, a connection from thomas.loc.gov by fred would be matched by several of the entries just shown above. How does the server choose which entry to use if more than one matches? The server resolves this question by sorting the user table after reading it at startup time, then looking through the entries in sorted order when a user attempts to connect. The first matching entry is the one that is used.

user table sorting works as follows. Suppose the user table looks like this:

+-----------+----------+-
| Host      | User     | ...
+-----------+----------+-
| %         | root     | ...
| %         | jeffrey  | ...
| localhost | root     | ...
| localhost |          | ...
+-----------+----------+-

When the server reads in the table, it orders the entries with the most-specific Host values first ('%' in the Host column means ``any host'' and is least specific). Entries with the same Host value are ordered with the most-specific User values first (a blank User value means ``any user'' and is least specific). The resulting sorted user table looks like this:

+-----------+----------+-
| Host      | User     | ...
+-----------+----------+-
| localhost | root     | ...
| localhost |          | ...
| %         | jeffrey  | ...
| %         | root     | ...
+-----------+----------+-

When a connection is attempted, the server looks through the sorted entries and uses the first match found. For a connection from localhost by jeffrey, the entries with 'localhost' in the Host column match first. Of those, the entry with the blank user name matches both the connecting hostname and user name. (The '%'/'jeffrey' entry would have matched, too, but it is not the first match in the table.)

Here is another example. Suppose the user table looks like this:

+----------------+----------+-
| Host           | User     | ...
+----------------+----------+-
| %              | jeffrey  | ...
| thomas.loc.gov |          | ...
+----------------+----------+-

The sorted table looks like this:

+----------------+----------+-
| Host           | User     | ...
+----------------+----------+-
| thomas.loc.gov |          | ...
| %              | jeffrey  | ...
+----------------+----------+-

A connection from thomas.loc.gov by jeffrey is matched by the first entry, whereas a connection from whitehouse.gov by jeffrey is matched by the second.

A common misconception is to think that for a given user name, all entries that explicitly name that user will be used first when the server attempts to find a match for the connection. This is simply not true. The previous example illustrates this, where a connection from thomas.loc.gov by jeffrey is first matched not by the entry containing 'jeffrey' as the User field value, but by the entry with no user name!

If you have problems connecting to the server, print out the user table and sort it by hand to see where the first match is being made. If connection was successful, but your privileges are not what you expected you may use CURRENT_USER() function (new in version 4.0.6) to see what user/host combination your connection actually matched. See section 6.3.6.2 Miscellaneous Functions.

4.2.10 Access Control, Stage 2: Request Verification

Once you establish a connection, the server enters Stage 2. For each request that comes in on the connection, the server checks whether you have sufficient privileges to perform it, based on the type of operation you wish to perform. This is where the privilege fields in the grant tables come into play. These privileges can come from any of the user, db, host, tables_priv, or columns_priv tables. The grant tables are manipulated with GRANT and REVOKE commands. See section 4.3.1 GRANT and REVOKE Syntax. (You may find it helpful to refer to section 4.2.6 How the Privilege System Works, which lists the fields present in each of the grant tables.)

The user table grants privileges that are assigned to you on a global basis and that apply no matter what the current database is. For example, if the user table grants you the DELETE privilege, you can delete rows from any database on the server host! In other words, user table privileges are superuser privileges. It is wise to grant privileges in the user table only to superusers such as server or database administrators. For other users, you should leave the privileges in the user table set to 'N' and grant privileges on a database-specific basis only, using the db and host tables.

The db and host tables grant database-specific privileges. Values in the scope fields may be specified as follows:

The db and host tables are read in and sorted when the server starts up (at the same time that it reads the user table). The db table is sorted on the Host, Db, and User scope fields, and the host table is sorted on the Host and Db scope fields. As with the user table, sorting puts the most-specific values first and least-specific values last, and when the server looks for matching entries, it uses the first match that it finds.

The tables_priv and columns_priv tables grant table- and column-specific privileges. Values in the scope fields may be specified as follows:

The tables_priv and columns_priv tables are sorted on the Host, Db, and User fields. This is similar to db table sorting, although the sorting is simpler because only the Host field may contain wildcards.

The request verification process is described here. (If you are familiar with the access-checking source code, you will notice that the description here differs slightly from the algorithm used in the code. The description is equivalent to what the code actually does; it differs only to make the explanation simpler.)

For administrative requests (SHUTDOWN, RELOAD, etc.), the server checks only the user table entry, because that is the only table that specifies administrative privileges. Access is granted if the entry allows the requested operation and denied otherwise. For example, if you want to execute mysqladmin shutdown but your user table entry doesn't grant the SHUTDOWN privilege to you, access is denied without even checking the db or host tables. (They contain no Shutdown_priv column, so there is no need to do so.)

For database-related requests (INSERT, UPDATE, etc.), the server first checks the user's global (superuser) privileges by looking in the user table entry. If the entry allows the requested operation, access is granted. If the global privileges in the user table are insufficient, the server determines the user's database-specific privileges by checking the db and host tables:

  1. The server looks in the db table for a match on the Host, Db, and User fields. The Host and User fields are matched to the connecting user's hostname and MySQL user name. The Db field is matched to the database the user wants to access. If there is no entry for the Host and User, access is denied.
  2. If there is a matching db table entry and its Host field is not blank, that entry defines the user's database-specific privileges.
  3. If the matching db table entry's Host field is blank, it signifies that the host table enumerates which hosts should be allowed access to the database. In this case, a further lookup is done in the host table to find a match on the Host and Db fields. If no host table entry matches, access is denied. If there is a match, the user's database-specific privileges are computed as the intersection (not the union!) of the privileges in the db and host table entries, that is, the privileges that are 'Y' in both entries. (This way you can grant general privileges in the db table entry and then selectively restrict them on a host-by-host basis using the host table entries.)

After determining the database-specific privileges granted by the db and host table entries, the server adds them to the global privileges granted by the user table. If the result allows the requested operation, access is granted. Otherwise, the server checks the user's table and column privileges in the tables_priv and columns_priv tables and adds those to the user's privileges. Access is allowed or denied based on the result.

Expressed in boolean terms, the preceding description of how a user's privileges are calculated may be summarised like this:

global privileges
OR (database privileges AND host privileges)
OR table privileges
OR column privileges

It may not be apparent why, if the global user entry privileges are initially found to be insufficient for the requested operation, the server adds those privileges to the database-, table-, and column-specific privileges later. The reason is that a request might require more than one type of privilege. For example, if you execute an INSERT ... SELECT statement, you need both INSERT and SELECT privileges. Your privileges might be such that the user table entry grants one privilege and the db table entry grants the other. In this case, you have the necessary privileges to perform the request, but the server cannot tell that from either table by itself; the privileges granted by the entries in both tables must be combined.

The host table can be used to maintain a list of secure servers.

At TcX, the host table contains a list of all machines on the local network. These are granted all privileges.

You can also use the host table to indicate hosts that are not secure. Suppose you have a machine public.your.domain that is located in a public area that you do not consider secure. You can allow access to all hosts on your network except that machine by using host table entries like this:

+--------------------+----+-
| Host               | Db | ...
+--------------------+----+-
| public.your.domain | %  | ... (all privileges set to 'N')
| %.your.domain      | %  | ... (all privileges set to 'Y')
+--------------------+----+-

Naturally, you should always test your entries in the grant tables (for example, using mysqlaccess) to make sure your access privileges are actually set up the way you think they are.

4.2.11 Causes of Access denied Errors

If you encounter Access denied errors when you try to connect to the MySQL server, the following list indicates some courses of action you can take to correct the problem:

4.3 MySQL User Account Management

4.3.1 GRANT and REVOKE Syntax

GRANT priv_type [(column_list)] [, priv_type [(column_list)] ...]
    ON {tbl_name | * | *.* | db_name.*}
    TO user_name [IDENTIFIED BY [PASSWORD] 'password']
        [, user_name [IDENTIFIED BY 'password'] ...]
    [REQUIRE
        NONE |
    	[{SSL| X509}]
	[CIPHER cipher [AND]]
	[ISSUER issuer [AND]]
	[SUBJECT subject]]
    [WITH [GRANT OPTION | MAX_QUERIES_PER_HOUR # |
                          MAX_UPDATES_PER_HOUR # |
                          MAX_CONNECTIONS_PER_HOUR #]]

REVOKE priv_type [(column_list)] [, priv_type [(column_list)] ...]
    ON {tbl_name | * | *.* | db_name.*}
    FROM user_name [, user_name ...]

GRANT is implemented in MySQL Version 3.22.11 or later. For earlier MySQL versions, the GRANT statement does nothing.

The GRANT and REVOKE commands allow system administrators to create users and grant and revoke rights to MySQL users at four privilege levels:

Global level
Global privileges apply to all databases on a given server. These privileges are stored in the mysql.user table.
Database level
Database privileges apply to all tables in a given database. These privileges are stored in the mysql.db and mysql.host tables.
Table level
Table privileges apply to all columns in a given table. These privileges are stored in the mysql.tables_priv table.
Column level
Column privileges apply to single columns in a given table. These privileges are stored in the mysql.columns_priv table.

If you give a grant for a users that doesn't exists, that user is created. For examples of how GRANT works, see section 4.3.5 Adding New Users to MySQL.

For the GRANT and REVOKE statements, priv_type may be specified as any of the following:

ALL [PRIVILEGES] Sets all simple privileges except WITH GRANT OPTION
ALTER Allows usage of ALTER TABLE
CREATE Allows usage of CREATE TABLE
CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES Allows usage of CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE
DELETE Allows usage of DELETE
DROP Allows usage of DROP TABLE.
EXECUTE Allows the user to run stored procedures (for MySQL 5.0)
FILE Allows usage of SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE and LOAD DATA INFILE.
INDEX Allows usage of CREATE INDEX and DROP INDEX
INSERT Allows usage of INSERT
LOCK TABLES Allows usage of LOCK TABLES on tables for which one has the SELECT privilege.
PROCESS Allows usage of SHOW FULL PROCESSLIST
REFERENCES For the future
RELOAD Allows usage of FLUSH
REPLICATION CLIENT Gives the right to the user to ask where the slaves/masters are.
REPLICATION SLAVE Needed for the replication slaves (to read binlogs from master).
SELECT Allows usage of SELECT
SHOW DATABASES SHOW DATABASES shows all databases.
SHUTDOWN Allows usage of mysqladmin shutdown
SUPER Allows one connect (once) even if max_connections is reached and execute commands CHANGE MASTER, KILL thread, mysqladmin debug, PURGE MASTER LOGS and SET GLOBAL
UPDATE Allows usage of UPDATE
USAGE Synonym for ``no privileges.''
GRANT OPTION Synonym for WITH GRANT OPTION

USAGE can be used when you want to create a user that has no privileges.

The privileges CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES, EXECUTE, LOCK TABLES, REPLICATION ..., SHOW DATABASES and SUPER are new for in version 4.0.2. To use these new privileges after upgrading to 4.0.2, you have to run the mysql_fix_privilege_tables script.

In older MySQL versions, the PROCESS privilege gives the same rights as the new SUPER privilege.

To revoke the GRANT privilege from a user, use a priv_type value of GRANT OPTION:

mysql> REVOKE GRANT OPTION ON ... FROM ...;

The only priv_type values you can specify for a table are SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, CREATE, DROP, GRANT OPTION, INDEX, and ALTER.

The only priv_type values you can specify for a column (that is, when you use a column_list clause) are SELECT, INSERT, and UPDATE.

You can set global privileges by using ON *.* syntax. You can set database privileges by using ON db_name.* syntax. If you specify ON * and you have a current database, you will set the privileges for that database. (Warning: if you specify ON * and you don't have a current database, you will affect the global privileges!)

Please note: the `_' and `%' wildcards are allowed when specifying database names in GRANT commands. This means that if you wish to use for instance a `_' character as part of a database name, you should specify it as `\_' in the GRANT command, to prevent the user from being able to access additional databases matching the wildcard pattern, e.g., GRANT ... ON `foo\_bar`.* TO ....

In order to accommodate granting rights to users from arbitrary hosts, MySQL supports specifying the user_name value in the form user@host. If you want to specify a user string containing special characters (such as `-'), or a host string containing special characters or wildcard characters (such as `%'), you can quote the user or host name (for example, 'test-user'@'test-hostname').

You can specify wildcards in the hostname. For example, user@'%.loc.gov' applies to user for any host in the loc.gov domain, and user@'144.155.166.%' applies to user for any host in the 144.155.166 class C subnet.

The simple form user is a synonym for user@"%".

MySQL doesn't support wildcards in user names. Anonymous users are defined by inserting entries with User='' into the mysql.user table or creating an user with an empty name with the GRANT command.

Note: if you allow anonymous users to connect to the MySQL server, you should also grant privileges to all local users as user@localhost because otherwise the anonymous user entry for the local host in the mysql.user table will be used when the user tries to log into the MySQL server from the local machine!

You can verify if this applies to you by executing this query:

mysql> SELECT Host,User FROM mysql.user WHERE User='';

For the moment, GRANT only supports host, table, database, and column names up to 60 characters long. A user name can be up to 16 characters.

The privileges for a table or column are formed from the logical OR of the privileges at each of the four privilege levels. For example, if the mysql.user table specifies that a user has a global SELECT privilege, this can't be denied by an entry at the database, table, or column level.

The privileges for a column can be calculated as follows:

global privileges
OR (database privileges AND host privileges)
OR table privileges
OR column privileges

In most cases, you grant rights to a user at only one of the privilege levels, so life isn't normally as complicated as above. The details of the privilege-checking procedure are presented in section 4.2 General Security Issues and the MySQL Access Privilege System.

If you grant privileges for a user/hostname combination that does not exist in the mysql.user table, an entry is added and remains there until deleted with a DELETE command. In other words, GRANT may create user table entries, but REVOKE will not remove them; you must do that explicitly using DELETE.

In MySQL Version 3.22.12 or later, if a new user is created or if you have global grant privileges, the user's password will be set to the password specified by the IDENTIFIED BY clause, if one is given. If the user already had a password, it is replaced by the new one.

If you don't want to send the password in clear text you can use the PASSWORD option followed by a scrambled password from SQL function PASSWORD() or the C API function make_scrambled_password(char *to, const char *password).

Warning: if you create a new user but do not specify an IDENTIFIED BY clause, the user has no password. This is insecure.

Passwords can also be set with the SET PASSWORD command. See section 5.5.6 SET Syntax.

If you grant privileges for a database, an entry in the mysql.db table is created if needed. When all privileges for the database have been removed with REVOKE, this entry is deleted.

If a user doesn't have any privileges on a table, the table is not displayed when the user requests a list of tables (for example, with a SHOW TABLES statement).

The WITH GRANT OPTION clause gives the user the ability to give to other users any privileges the user has at the specified privilege level. You should be careful to whom you give the GRANT privilege, as two users with different privileges may be able to join privileges!

MAX_QUERIES_PER_HOUR #, MAX_UPDATES_PER_HOUR # and MAX_CONNECTIONS_PER_HOUR # are new in MySQL version 4.0.2. These options limit the number of queries/updates and logins the user can do during one hour. If # is 0 (default), then this means that there are no limitations for that user. See section 4.3.6 Limiting user resources. Note: to specify any of these options for an existing user without adding other additional privileges, use GRANT USAGE ... WITH MAX_....

You cannot grant another user a privilege you don't have yourself; the GRANT privilege allows you to give away only those privileges you possess.

Be aware that when you grant a user the GRANT privilege at a particular privilege level, any privileges the user already possesses (or is given in the future!) at that level are also grantable by that user. Suppose you grant a user the INSERT privilege on a database. If you then grant the SELECT privilege on the database and specify WITH GRANT OPTION, the user can give away not only the SELECT privilege, but also INSERT. If you then grant the UPDATE privilege to the user on the database, the user can give away the INSERT, SELECT and UPDATE.

You should not grant ALTER privileges to a normal user. If you do that, the user can try to subvert the privilege system by renaming tables!

Note that if you are using table or column privileges for even one user, the server examines table and column privileges for all users and this will slow down MySQL a bit.

When mysqld starts, all privileges are read into memory. Database, table, and column privileges take effect at once, and user-level privileges take effect the next time the user connects. Modifications to the grant tables that you perform using GRANT or REVOKE are noticed by the server immediately. If you modify the grant tables manually (using INSERT, UPDATE, etc.), you should execute a FLUSH PRIVILEGES statement or run mysqladmin flush-privileges to tell the server to reload the grant tables. See section 4.3.3 When Privilege Changes Take Effect.

The biggest differences between the ANSI SQL and MySQL versions of GRANT are:

For a description of using REQUIRE, see section 4.3.9 Using Secure Connections.

4.3.2 MySQL User Names and Passwords

There are several distinctions between the way user names and passwords are used by MySQL and the way they are used by Unix or Windows:

MySQL users and their privileges are normally created with the GRANT command. See section 4.3.1 GRANT and REVOKE Syntax.

When you login to a MySQL server with a command-line client you should specify the password with --password=your-password. See section 4.2.8 Connecting to the MySQL Server.

mysql --user=monty --password=guess database_name

If you want the client to prompt for a password, you should use --password without any argument

mysql --user=monty --password database_name

or the short form:

mysql -u monty -p database_name

Note that in the last example the password is not 'database_name'.

If you want to use the -p option to supply a password you should do so like this:

mysql -u monty -pguess database_name

On some systems, the library call that MySQL uses to prompt for a password will automatically cut the password to 8 characters. Internally MySQL doesn't have any limit for the length of the password.

4.3.3 When Privilege Changes Take Effect

When mysqld starts, all grant table contents are read into memory and become effective at that point.

Modifications to the grant tables that you perform using GRANT, REVOKE, or SET PASSWORD are noticed by the server immediately.

If you modify the grant tables manually (using INSERT, UPDATE, etc.), you should execute a FLUSH PRIVILEGES statement or run mysqladmin flush-privileges or mysqladmin reload to tell the server to reload the grant tables. Otherwise, your changes will have no effect until you restart the server. If you change the grant tables manually but forget to reload the privileges, you will be wondering why your changes don't seem to make any difference!

When the server notices that the grant tables have been changed, existing client connections are affected as follows:

4.3.4 Setting Up the Initial MySQL Privileges

After installing MySQL, you set up the initial access privileges by running scripts/mysql_install_db. See section 2.3.1 Quick Installation Overview. The mysql_install_db script starts up the mysqld server, then initialises the grant tables to contain the following set of privileges:

Note: the default privileges are different for Windows. See section 2.6.2.3 Running MySQL on Windows.

Because your installation is initially wide open, one of the first things you should do is specify a password for the MySQL root user. You can do this as follows (note that you specify the password using the PASSWORD() function):

shell> mysql -u root mysql
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR root@localhost=PASSWORD('new_password');

If you know what you are doing, you can also directly manipulate the privilege tables:

shell> mysql -u root mysql
mysql> UPDATE user SET Password=PASSWORD('new_password')
    ->     WHERE user='root';
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

Another way to set the password is by using the mysqladmin command:

shell> mysqladmin -u root password new_password

Only users with write/update access to the mysql database can change the password for others users. All normal users (not anonymous ones) can only change their own password with either of the above commands or with SET PASSWORD=PASSWORD('new password').

Note that if you update the password in the user table directly using the first method, you must tell the server to re-read the grant tables (with FLUSH PRIVILEGES), because the change will go unnoticed otherwise.

Once the root password has been set, thereafter you must supply that password when you connect to the server as root.

You may wish to leave the root password blank so that you don't need to specify it while you perform additional setup or testing. However, be sure to set it before using your installation for any real production work.

See the scripts/mysql_install_db script to see how it sets up the default privileges. You can use this as a basis to see how to add other users.

If you want the initial privileges to be different from those just described above, you can modify mysql_install_db before you run it.

To re-create the grant tables completely, remove all the `.frm', `.MYI', and `.MYD' files in the directory containing the mysql database. (This is the directory named `mysql' under the database directory, which is listed when you run mysqld --help.) Then run the mysql_install_db script, possibly after editing it first to have the privileges you want.

Note: for MySQL versions older than Version 3.22.10, you should not delete the `.frm' files. If you accidentally do this, you should copy them back from your MySQL distribution before running mysql_install_db.

4.3.5 Adding New Users to MySQL

You can add users two different ways: by using GRANT statements or by manipulating the MySQL grant tables directly. The preferred method is to use GRANT statements, because they are more concise and less error-prone. See section 4.3.1 GRANT and REVOKE Syntax.

There are also a lot of contributed programs like phpmyadmin that can be used to create and administrate users.

The following examples show how to use the mysql client to set up new users. These examples assume that privileges are set up according to the defaults described in the previous section. This means that to make changes, you must be on the same machine where mysqld is running, you must connect as the MySQL root user, and the root user must have the INSERT privilege for the mysql database and the RELOAD administrative privilege. Also, if you have changed the root user password, you must specify it for the mysql commands here.

You can add new users by issuing GRANT statements:

shell> mysql --user=root mysql
mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO monty@localhost
    ->     IDENTIFIED BY 'some_pass' WITH GRANT OPTION;
mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO monty@"%"
    ->     IDENTIFIED BY 'some_pass' WITH GRANT OPTION;
mysql> GRANT RELOAD,PROCESS ON *.* TO admin@localhost;
mysql> GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO dummy@localhost;

These GRANT statements set up three new users:

monty
A full superuser who can connect to the server from anywhere, but who must use a password 'some_pass' to do so. Note that we must issue GRANT statements for both monty@localhost and monty@"%". If we don't add the entry with localhost, the anonymous user entry for localhost that is created by mysql_install_db will take precedence when we connect from the local host, because it has a more specific Host field value and thus comes earlier in the user table sort order.
admin
A user who can connect from localhost without a password and who is granted the RELOAD and PROCESS administrative privileges. This allows the user to execute the mysqladmin reload, mysqladmin refresh, and mysqladmin flush-* commands, as well as mysqladmin processlist . No database-related privileges are granted. (They can be granted later by issuing additional GRANT statements.)
dummy
A user who can connect without a password, but only from the local host. The global privileges are all set to 'N'@-the USAGE privilege type allows you to create a user with no privileges. It is assumed that you will grant database-specific privileges later.

You can also add the same user access information directly by issuing INSERT statements and then telling the server to reload the grant tables:

shell> mysql --user=root mysql
mysql> INSERT INTO user VALUES('localhost','monty',PASSWORD('some_pass'),
    ->          'Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y');
mysql> INSERT INTO user VALUES('%','monty',PASSWORD('some_pass'),
    ->          'Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y');
mysql> INSERT INTO user SET Host='localhost',User='admin',
    ->           Reload_priv='Y', Process_priv='Y';
mysql> INSERT INTO user (Host,User,Password)
    ->                  VALUES('localhost','dummy','');
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

Depending on your MySQL version, you may have to use a different number of 'Y' values above (versions prior to Version 3.22.11 had fewer privilege columns). For the admin user, the more readable extended INSERT syntax that is available starting with Version 3.22.11 is used.

Note that to set up a superuser, you need only create a user table entry with the privilege fields set to 'Y'. No db or host table entries are necessary.

The privilege columns in the user table were not set explicitly in the last INSERT statement (for the dummy user), so those columns are assigned the default value of 'N'. This is the same thing that GRANT USAGE does.

The following example adds a user custom who can connect from hosts localhost, server.domain, and whitehouse.gov. He wants to access the bankaccount database only from localhost, the expenses database only from whitehouse.gov, and the customer database from all three hosts. He wants to use the password stupid from all three hosts.

To set up this user's privileges using GRANT statements, run these commands:

shell> mysql --user=root mysql
mysql> GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE,CREATE,DROP
    ->     ON bankaccount.*
    ->     TO custom@localhost
    ->     IDENTIFIED BY 'stupid';
mysql> GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE,CREATE,DROP
    ->     ON expenses.*
    ->     TO custom@whitehouse.gov
    ->     IDENTIFIED BY 'stupid';
mysql> GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE,CREATE,DROP
    ->     ON customer.*
    ->     TO custom@'%'
    ->     IDENTIFIED BY 'stupid';

The reason that we do to grant statements for the user 'custom' is that we want the give the user access to MySQL both from the local machine with Unix sockets and from the remote machine 'whitehouse.gov' over TCP/IP.

To set up the user's privileges by modifying the grant tables directly, run these commands (note the FLUSH PRIVILEGES at the end):

shell> mysql --user=root mysql
mysql> INSERT INTO user (Host,User,Password)
    -> VALUES('localhost','custom',PASSWORD('stupid'));
mysql> INSERT INTO user (Host,User,Password)
    -> VALUES('server.domain','custom',PASSWORD('stupid'));
mysql> INSERT INTO user (Host,User,Password)
    -> VALUES('whitehouse.gov','custom',PASSWORD('stupid'));
mysql> INSERT INTO db
    -> (Host,Db,User,Select_priv,Insert_priv,Update_priv,Delete_priv,
    ->  Create_priv,Drop_priv)
    -> VALUES
    -> ('localhost','bankaccount','custom','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y');
mysql> INSERT INTO db
    -> (Host,Db,User,Select_priv,Insert_priv,Update_priv,Delete_priv,
    ->  Create_priv,Drop_priv)
    -> VALUES
    -> ('whitehouse.gov','expenses','custom','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y');
mysql> INSERT INTO db
    -> (Host,Db,User,Select_priv,Insert_priv,Update_priv,Delete_priv,
    ->  Create_priv,Drop_priv)
    -> VALUES('%','customer','custom','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y','Y');
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

The first three INSERT statements add user table entries that allow user custom to connect from the various hosts with the given password, but grant no permissions to him (all privileges are set to the default value of 'N'). The next three INSERT statements add db table entries that grant privileges to custom for the bankaccount, expenses, and customer databases, but only when accessed from the proper hosts. As usual, when the grant tables are modified directly, the server must be told to reload them (with FLUSH PRIVILEGES) so that the privilege changes take effect.

If you want to give a specific user access from any machine in a given domain, you can issue a GRANT statement like the following:

mysql> GRANT ...
    ->     ON *.*
    ->     TO myusername@"%.mydomainname.com"
    ->     IDENTIFIED BY 'mypassword';

To do the same thing by modifying the grant tables directly, do this:

mysql> INSERT INTO user VALUES ('%.mydomainname.com', 'myusername',
    ->             PASSWORD('mypassword'),...);
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

4.3.6 Limiting user resources

Starting from MySQL 4.0.2 one can limit certain resources per user.

So far, the only available method of limiting usage of MySQL server resources has been setting the max_user_connections startup variable to a non-zero value. But this method is strictly global and does not allow for management of individual users, which could be of particular interest to Internet Service Providers.

Therefore, management of three resources is introduced on the individual user level:

A user in the aforementioned context is a single entry in the user table, which is uniquely identified by its user and host columns.

All users are by default not limited in using the above resources, unless the limits are granted to them. These limits can be granted only via global GRANT (*.*), using this syntax:

GRANT ... WITH MAX_QUERIES_PER_HOUR N1
               MAX_UPDATES_PER_HOUR N2
               MAX_CONNECTIONS_PER_HOUR N3;

One can specify any combination of the above resources. N1, N2 and N3 are integers and stands for count / hour.

If user reaches any of the above limits withing one hour, his connection will be terminated or refused and the appropriate error message shall be issued.

Current usage values for a particular user can be flushed (set to zero) by issuing a GRANT statement with any of the above clauses, including a GRANT statement with the current values.

Also, current values for all users will be flushed if privileges are reloaded (in the server or using mysqladmin reload) or if the FLUSH USER_RESOURCES command is issued.

The feature is enabled as soon as a single user is granted with any of the limiting GRANT clauses.

As a prerequisite for enabling this feature, the user table in the mysql database must contain the additional columns, as defined in the table creation scripts mysql_install_db and mysql_install_db.sh in `scripts' subdirectory.

4.3.7 Setting Up Passwords

In most cases you should use GRANT to set up your users/passwords, so the following only applies for advanced users. See section 4.3.1 GRANT and REVOKE Syntax.

The examples in the preceding sections illustrate an important principle: when you store a non-empty password using INSERT or UPDATE statements, you must use the PASSWORD() function to encrypt it. This is because the user table stores passwords in encrypted form, not as plaintext. If you forget that fact, you are likely to attempt to set passwords like this:

shell> mysql -u root mysql
mysql> INSERT INTO user (Host,User,Password)
    -> VALUES('%','jeffrey','biscuit');
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

The result is that the plaintext value 'biscuit' is stored as the password in the user table. When the user jeffrey attempts to connect to the server using this password, the mysql client encrypts it with PASSWORD(), generates an authentification vector based on encrypted password and a random number, obtained from server, and sends the result to the server. The server uses the password value in the user table (that is not encrypted value 'biscuit') to perform the same calculations, and compares results. The comparison fails and the server rejects the connection:

shell> mysql -u jeffrey -pbiscuit test
Access denied

Passwords must be encrypted when they are inserted in the user table, so the INSERT statement should have been specified like this instead:

mysql> INSERT INTO user (Host,User,Password)
    -> VALUES('%','jeffrey',PASSWORD('biscuit'));

You must also use the PASSWORD() function when you use SET PASSWORD statements:

mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR jeffrey@"%" = PASSWORD('biscuit');

If you set passwords using the GRANT ... IDENTIFIED BY statement or the mysqladmin password command, the PASSWORD() function is unnecessary. They both take care of encrypting the password for you, so you would specify a password of 'biscuit' like this:

mysql> GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO jeffrey@"%" IDENTIFIED BY 'biscuit';

or

shell> mysqladmin -u jeffrey password biscuit

Note: PASSWORD() does not perform password encryption in the same way that Unix passwords are encrypted. You should not assume that if your Unix password and your MySQL password are the same, that PASSWORD() will result in the same encrypted value as is stored in the Unix password file. See section 4.3.2 MySQL User Names and Passwords.

4.3.8 Keeping Your Password Secure

It is inadvisable to specify your password in a way that exposes it to discovery by other users. The methods you can use to specify your password when you run client programs are listed here, along with an assessment of the risks of each method:

All in all, the safest methods are to have the client program prompt for the password or to specify the password in a properly protected `.my.cnf' file.

4.3.9 Using Secure Connections

4.3.9.1 Basics

Beginning with version 4.0.0, MySQL has support for SSL encrypted connections. To understand how MySQL uses SSL, it's necessary to explain some basic SSL and X509 concepts. People who are already familiar with them can skip this part.

By default, MySQL uses unencrypted connections between the client and the server. This means that someone could watch all your traffic and look at the data being sent or received. They could even change the data while it is in transit between client and server. Sometimes you need to move information over public networks in a secure fashion; in such cases, using an unencrypted connection is unacceptable.

SSL is a protocol that uses different encryption algorithms to ensure that data received over a public network can be trusted. It has mechanisms to detect any change, loss or replay of data. SSL also incorporates algorithms to recognise and provide identity verification using the X509 standard.

Encryption is the way to make any kind of data unreadable. In fact, today's practice requires many additional security elements from encryption algorithms. They should resist many kind of known attacks like just messing with the order of encrypted messages or replaying data twice.

X509 is a standard that makes it possible to identify someone on the Internet. It is most commonly used in e-commerce applications. In basic terms, there should be some company (called a ``Certificate Authority'') that assigns electronic certificates to anyone who needs them. Certificates rely on asymmetric encryption algorithms that have two encryption keys (a public key and a secret key). A certificate owner can prove his identity by showing his certificate to other party. A certificate consists of its owner's public key. Any data encrypted with this public key can be decrypted only using the corresponding secret key, which is held by the owner of the certificate.

MySQL doesn't use encrypted connections by default, because doing so would make the client/server protocol much slower. Any kind of additional functionality requires the computer to do additional work and encrypting data is a CPU-intensive operation that requires time and can delay MySQL main tasks. By default MySQL is tuned to be fast as possible.

If you need more information about SSL, X509, or encryption, you should use your favourite Internet search engine and search for keywords in which you are interested.

4.3.9.2 Requirements

To get secure connections to work with MySQL you must do the following:

  1. Install the OpenSSL library. We have tested MySQL with OpenSSL 0.9.6. http://www.openssl.org/.
  2. Configure MySQL with --with-vio --with-openssl.
  3. If you are using an old MySQL installation, you have to update your mysql.user table with some new SSL-related columns. You can do this by running the mysql_fix_privilege_tables.sh script. This is necessary if your grant tables date from a version prior to MySQL 4.0.0.
  4. You can check if a running mysqld server supports OpenSSL by examining if SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'have_openssl' returns YES.

4.3.9.3 Setting Up SSL Certificates for MySQL

Here is an example for setting up SSL certificates for MySQL:

DIR=`pwd`/openssl
PRIV=$DIR/private

mkdir $DIR $PRIV $DIR/newcerts
cp /usr/share/ssl/openssl.cnf $DIR
replace ./demoCA $DIR -- $DIR/openssl.cnf

# Create necessary files: $database, $serial and $new_certs_dir 
# directory (optional)

touch $DIR/index.txt
echo "01" > $DIR/serial

#
# Generation of Certificate Authority(CA)
#

openssl req -new -x509 -keyout $PRIV/cakey.pem -out $DIR/cacert.pem \
    -config $DIR/openssl.cnf

# Sample output:
# Using configuration from /home/monty/openssl/openssl.cnf
# Generating a 1024 bit RSA private key
# ................++++++
# .........++++++
# writing new private key to '/home/monty/openssl/private/cakey.pem'
# Enter PEM pass phrase:
# Verifying password - Enter PEM pass phrase:
# -----
# You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
# into your certificate request.
# What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
# There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
# For some fields there will be a default value,
# If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
# -----
# Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:FI
# State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:.
# Locality Name (eg, city) []:
# Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:MySQL AB
# Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:
# Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []:MySQL admin
# Email Address []:

#
# Create server request and key
#
openssl req -new -keyout $DIR/server-key.pem -out \
    $DIR/server-req.pem -days 3600 -config $DIR/openssl.cnf

# Sample output:
# Using configuration from /home/monty/openssl/openssl.cnf
# Generating a 1024 bit RSA private key
# ..++++++
# ..........++++++
# writing new private key to '/home/monty/openssl/server-key.pem'
# Enter PEM pass phrase:
# Verifying password - Enter PEM pass phrase:
# -----
# You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
# into your certificate request.
# What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
# There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
# For some fields there will be a default value,
# If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
# -----
# Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:FI
# State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:.
# Locality Name (eg, city) []:
# Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:MySQL AB
# Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:
# Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []:MySQL server
# Email Address []:
# 
# Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
# to be sent with your certificate request
# A challenge password []:
# An optional company name []:

#
# Remove the passphrase from the key (optional)
#

openssl rsa -in $DIR/server-key.pem -out $DIR/server-key.pem

#
# Sign server cert
#
openssl ca  -policy policy_anything -out $DIR/server-cert.pem \
    -config $DIR/openssl.cnf -infiles $DIR/server-req.pem

# Sample output:
# Using configuration from /home/monty/openssl/openssl.cnf
# Enter PEM pass phrase:
# Check that the request matches the signature
# Signature ok
# The Subjects Distinguished Name is as follows
# countryName           :PRINTABLE:'FI'
# organizationName      :PRINTABLE:'MySQL AB'
# commonName            :PRINTABLE:'MySQL admin'
# Certificate is to be certified until Sep 13 14:22:46 2003 GMT (365 days)
# Sign the certificate? [y/n]:y
# 
# 
# 1 out of 1 certificate requests certified, commit? [y/n]y
# Write out database with 1 new entries
# Data Base Updated

#
# Create client request and key
#
openssl req -new -keyout $DIR/client-key.pem -out \
    $DIR/client-req.pem -days 3600 -config $DIR/openssl.cnf

# Sample output:
# Using configuration from /home/monty/openssl/openssl.cnf
# Generating a 1024 bit RSA private key
# .....................................++++++
# .............................................++++++
# writing new private key to '/home/monty/openssl/client-key.pem'
# Enter PEM pass phrase:
# Verifying password - Enter PEM pass phrase:
# -----
# You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
# into your certificate request.
# What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
# There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
# For some fields there will be a default value,
# If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
# -----
# Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:FI
# State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:.
# Locality Name (eg, city) []:
# Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:MySQL AB
# Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:
# Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []:MySQL user
# Email Address []:
# 
# Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
# to be sent with your certificate request
# A challenge password []:
# An optional company name []:

#
# Remove a passphrase from the key (optional)
#
openssl rsa -in $DIR/client-key.pem -out $DIR/client-key.pem

#
# Sign client cert
#

openssl ca  -policy policy_anything -out $DIR/client-cert.pem \
    -config $DIR/openssl.cnf -infiles $DIR/client-req.pem

# Sample output:
# Using configuration from /home/monty/openssl/openssl.cnf
# Enter PEM pass phrase:
# Check that the request matches the signature
# Signature ok
# The Subjects Distinguished Name is as follows
# countryName           :PRINTABLE:'FI'
# organizationName      :PRINTABLE:'MySQL AB'
# commonName            :PRINTABLE:'MySQL user'
# Certificate is to be certified until Sep 13 16:45:17 2003 GMT (365 days)
# Sign the certificate? [y/n]:y
# 
# 
# 1 out of 1 certificate requests certified, commit? [y/n]y
# Write out database with 1 new entries
# Data Base Updated

#
# Create a my.cnf file that you can use to test the certificates
#

cnf=""
cnf="$cnf [client]"
cnf="$cnf ssl-ca=$DIR/cacert.pem"
cnf="$cnf ssl-cert=$DIR/client-cert.pem"
cnf="$cnf ssl-key=$DIR/client-key.pem"
cnf="$cnf [mysqld]"
cnf="$cnf ssl-ca=$DIR/cacert.pem"
cnf="$cnf ssl-cert=$DIR/server-cert.pem"
cnf="$cnf ssl-key=$DIR/server-key.pem"
echo $cnf | replace " " '
' > $DIR/my.cnf

#
# To test MySQL

mysqld --defaults-file=$DIR/my.cnf &

mysql --defaults-file=$DIR/my.cnf

You can also test your setup by modifying the above `my.cnf' file to refer to the demo certificates in the mysql-source-dist/SSL direcory.

4.3.9.4 GRANT Options

MySQL can check X509 certificate attributes in addition to the normal username/password scheme. All the usual options are still required (username, password, IP address mask, database/table name).

There are different possibilities to limit connections:

4.4 Disaster Prevention and Recovery

4.4.1 Database Backups

Because MySQL tables are stored as files, it is easy to do a backup. To get a consistent backup, do a LOCK TABLES on the relevant tables followed by FLUSH TABLES for the tables. See section 6.7.2 LOCK TABLES/UNLOCK TABLES Syntax. See section 4.5.3 FLUSH Syntax. You only need a read lock; this allows other threads to continue to query the tables while you are making a copy of the files in the database directory. The FLUSH TABLE is needed to ensure that the all active index pages is written to disk before you start the backup.

Starting from 3.23.56 and 4.0.12 BACKUP TABLE will not allow you to overwrite existing files as this would be a security risk.

If you want to make a SQL level backup of a table, you can use SELECT INTO OUTFILE or BACKUP TABLE. See section 6.4.1 SELECT Syntax. See section 4.4.2 BACKUP TABLE Syntax.

Another way to back up a database is to use the mysqldump program or the mysqlhotcopy script. See section 4.8.5 mysqldump, Dumping Table Structure and Data. See section 4.8.6 mysqlhotcopy, Copying MySQL Databases and Tables.

  1. Do a full backup of your databases:
    shell> mysqldump --tab=/path/to/some/dir --opt --all
    
    or
    
    shell> mysqlhotcopy database /path/to/some/dir
    
    You can also simply copy all table files (`*.frm', `*.MYD', and `*.MYI' files) as long as the server isn't updating anything. The script mysqlhotcopy does use this method.
  2. Stop mysqld if it's running, then start it with the --log-update[=file_name] option. See section 4.9.3 The Update Log. The update log file(s) provide you with the information you need to replicate changes to the database that are made subsequent to the point at which you executed mysqldump.

If you have to restore something, try to recover your tables using REPAIR TABLE or myisamchk -r first. That should work in 99.9% of all cases. If myisamchk fails, try the following procedure (this will only work if you have started MySQL with --log-update, see section 4.9.3 The Update Log):

  1. Restore the original mysqldump backup.
  2. Execute the following command to re-run the updates in the binary log:
    shell> mysqlbinlog hostname-bin.[0-9]* | mysql
    
    If you are using the update log you can use:
    shell> ls -1 -t -r hostname.[0-9]* | xargs cat | mysql
    

ls is used to get all the update log files in the right order.

You can also do selective backups with SELECT * INTO OUTFILE 'file_name' FROM tbl_name and restore with LOAD DATA INFILE 'file_name' REPLACE ... To avoid duplicate records, you need a PRIMARY KEY or a UNIQUE key in the table. The REPLACE keyword causes old records to be replaced with new ones when a new record duplicates an old record on a unique key value.

If you get performance problems in making backups on your system, you can solve this by setting up replication and do the backups on the slave instead of on the master. See section 4.10.1 Introduction.

If you are using a Veritas filesystem, you can do:

  1. From a client (or Perl), execute: FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK.
  2. From another shell, execute: mount vxfs snapshot.
  3. From the first client, execute: UNLOCK TABLES.
  4. Copy files from snapshot.
  5. Unmount snapshot.

4.4.2 BACKUP TABLE Syntax

BACKUP TABLE tbl_name[,tbl_name...] TO '/path/to/backup/directory'

Copies to the backup directory the minimum number of table files needed to restore the table, after flushing any buffered changes to disk. Currently works only for MyISAM tables. For MyISAM tables, copies `.frm' (definition) and `.MYD' (data) files. The index file can be rebuilt from those two.

Before using this command, please see section 4.4.1 Database Backups.

During the backup, a read lock will be held for each table, one at time, as they are being backed up. If you want to back up several tables as a snapshot, you must first issue LOCK TABLES obtaining a read lock for each table in the group.

The command returns a table with the following columns:

Column Value
Table Table name
Op Always ``backup''
Msg_type One of status, error, info or warning.
Msg_text The message.

Note that BACKUP TABLE is only available in MySQL version 3.23.25 and later.

4.4.3 RESTORE TABLE Syntax

RESTORE TABLE tbl_name[,tbl_name...] FROM '/path/to/backup/directory'

Restores the table(s) from the backup that was made with BACKUP TABLE. Existing tables will not be overwritten; if you try to restore over an existing table, you will get an error. Restoring will take longer than backing up due to the need to rebuild the index. The more keys you have, the longer it will take. Just as BACKUP TABLE, RESTORE TABLE currently works only for MyISAM tables.

The command returns a table with the following columns:

Column Value
Table Table name
Op Always ``restore''
Msg_type One of status, error, info or warning.
Msg_text The message.

4.4.4 CHECK TABLE Syntax

CHECK TABLE tbl_name[,tbl_name...] [option [option...]]

option = QUICK | FAST | MEDIUM | EXTENDED | CHANGED

CHECK TABLE works only on MyISAM and InnoDB tables. On MyISAM tables it's the same thing as running myisamchk -m table_name on the table.

If you don't specify any option MEDIUM is used.

Checks the table(s) for errors. For MyISAM tables the key statistics are updated. The command returns a table with the following columns:

Column Value
Table Table name.
Op Always ``check''.
Msg_type One of status, error, info, or warning.
Msg_text The message.

Note that you can get many rows of information for each checked table. The last row will be of Msg_type status and should normally be OK. If you don't get OK, or Table is already up to date you should normally run a repair of the table. See section 4.4.6 Using myisamchk for Table Maintenance and Crash Recovery. Table is already up to date means that the table the given TYPE told MySQL that there wasn't any need to check the table.

The different check types stand for the following:

Type Meaning
QUICK Don't scan the rows to check for wrong links.
FAST Only check tables which haven't been closed properly.
CHANGED Only check tables which have been changed since last check or haven't been closed properly.
MEDIUM Scan rows to verify that deleted links are okay. This also calculates a key checksum for the rows and verifies this with a calculated checksum for the keys.
EXTENDED Do a full key lookup for all keys for each row. This ensures that the table is 100% consistent, but will take a long time!

For dynamically sized MyISAM tables a started check will always do a MEDIUM check. For statically sized rows we skip the row scan for QUICK and FAST as the rows are very seldom corrupted.

You can combine check options as in:

CHECK TABLE test_table FAST QUICK;

Which would simply do a quick check on the table to see whether it was closed properly.

Note: that in some case CHECK TABLE will change the table! This happens if the table is marked as 'corrupted' or 'not closed properly' but CHECK TABLE didn't find any problems in the table. In this case CHECK TABLE will mark the table as okay.

If a table is corrupted, then it's most likely that the problem is in the indexes and not in the data part. All of the above check types checks the indexes thoroughly and should thus find most errors.

If you just want to check a table that you assume is okay, you should use no check options or the QUICK option. The latter should be used when you are in a hurry and can take the very small risk that QUICK didn't find an error in the datafile. (In most cases MySQL should find, under normal usage, any error in the data file. If this happens then the table will be marked as 'corrupted', in which case the table can't be used until it's repaired.)

FAST and CHANGED are mostly intended to be used from a script (for example to be executed from cron) if you want to check your table from time to time. In most cases you FAST is to be prefered over CHANGED. (The only case when it isn't is when you suspect a bug you have found a bug in the MyISAM code.)

EXTENDED is only to be used after you have run a normal check but still get strange errors from a table when MySQL tries to update a row or find a row by key (this is very unlikely if a normal check has succeeded!).

Some things reported by check table, can't be corrected automatically:

4.4.5 REPAIR TABLE Syntax

REPAIR TABLE tbl_name[,tbl_name...] [QUICK] [EXTENDED] [USE_FRM]

REPAIR TABLE works only on MyISAM tables and is the same as running myisamchk -r table_name on the table.

Normally you should never have to run this command, but if disaster strikes you are very likely to get back all your data from a MyISAM table with REPAIR TABLE. If your tables get corrupted a lot you should try to find the reason for this! See section A.4.1 What To Do If MySQL Keeps Crashing. See section 7.1.3 MyISAM Table Problems.

REPAIR TABLE repairs a possible corrupted table. The command returns a table with the following columns:

Column Value
Table Table name
Op Always ``repair''
Msg_type One of status, error, info or warning.
Msg_text The message.

Note that you can get many rows of information for each repaired table. The last one row will be of Msg_type status and should normally be OK. If you don't get OK, you should try repairing the table with myisamchk -o, as REPAIR TABLE does not yet implement all the options of myisamchk. In the near future, we will make it more flexible.

If QUICK is given then MySQL will try to do a REPAIR of only the index tree.

If you use EXTENDED then MySQL will create the index row by row instead of creating one index at a time with sorting; this may be better than sorting on fixed-length keys if you have long CHAR keys that compress very well. This type of repair is like that done by myisamchk --safe-recover.

As of MySQL 4.0.2, there is a USE_FRM mode for REPAIR. Use it if the `.MYI' file is missing or if its header is corrupted. In this mode MySQL will recreate the table, using information from the `.frm' file. This kind of repair cannot be done with myisamchk.

4.4.6 Using myisamchk for Table Maintenance and Crash Recovery

Starting with MySQL Version 3.23.13, you can check MyISAM tables with the CHECK TABLE command. See section 4.4.4 CHECK TABLE Syntax. You can repair tables with the REPAIR TABLE command. See section 4.4.5 REPAIR TABLE Syntax.

To check/repair MyISAM tables (`.MYI' and `.MYD') you should use the myisamchk utility. To check/repair ISAM tables (`.ISM' and `.ISD') you should use the isamchk utility. See section 7 MySQL Table Types.

In the following text we will talk about myisamchk, but everything also applies to the old isamchk.

You can use the myisamchk utility to get information about your database tables, check and repair them, or optimise them. The following sections describe how to invoke myisamchk (including a description of its options), how to set up a table maintenance schedule, and how to use myisamchk to perform its various functions.

You can, in most cases, also use the command OPTIMIZE TABLES to optimise and repair tables, but this is not as fast or reliable (in case of real fatal errors) as myisamchk. On the other hand, OPTIMIZE TABLE is easier to use and you don't have to worry about flushing tables. See section 4.5.1 OPTIMIZE TABLE Syntax.

Even that the repair in myisamchk is quite secure, it's always a good idea to make a backup before doing a repair (or anything that could make a lot of changes to a table)

4.4.6.1 myisamchk Invocation Syntax

myisamchk is invoked like this:

shell> myisamchk [options] tbl_name

The options specify what you want myisamchk to do. They are described here. (You can also get a list of options by invoking myisamchk --help.) With no options, myisamchk simply checks your table. To get more information or to tell myisamchk to take corrective action, specify options as described here and in the following sections.

tbl_name is the database table you want to check/repair. If you run myisamchk somewhere other than in the database directory, you must specify the path to the file, because myisamchk has no idea where your database is located. Actually, myisamchk doesn't care whether the files you are working on are located in a database directory; you can copy the files that correspond to a database table into another location and perform recovery operations on them there.

You can name several tables on the myisamchk command-line if you wish. You can also specify a name as an index file name (with the `.MYI' suffix), which allows you to specify all tables in a directory by using the pattern `*.MYI'. For example, if you are in a database directory, you can check all the tables in the directory like this:

shell> myisamchk *.MYI

If you are not in the database directory, you can check all the tables there by specifying the path to the directory:

shell> myisamchk /path/to/database_dir/*.MYI

You can even check all tables in all databases by specifying a wildcard with the path to the MySQL data directory:

shell> myisamchk /path/to/datadir/*/*.MYI

The recommended way to quickly check all tables is:

myisamchk --silent --fast /path/to/datadir/*/*.MYI
isamchk --silent /path/to/datadir/*/*.ISM

If you want to check all tables and repair all tables that are corrupted, you can use the following line:

myisamchk --silent --force --fast --update-state -O key_buffer=64M \
          -O sort_buffer=64M -O read_buffer=1M -O write_buffer=1M \
          /path/to/datadir/*/*.MYI
isamchk --silent --force -O key_buffer=64M -O sort_buffer=64M \
        -O read_buffer=1M -O write_buffer=1M /path/to/datadir/*/*.ISM

The above assumes that you have more than 64 M free.

Note that if you get an error like:

myisamchk: warning: 1 clients is using or hasn't closed the table properly

This means that you are trying to check a table that has been updated by the another program (like the mysqld server) that hasn't yet closed the file or that has died without closing the file properly.

If you mysqld is running, you must force a sync/close of all tables with FLUSH TABLES and ensure that no one is using the tables while you are running myisamchk. In MySQL Version 3.23 the easiest way to avoid this problem is to use CHECK TABLE instead of myisamchk to check tables.

4.4.6.2 General Options for myisamchk

myisamchk supports the following options.

-# or --debug=debug_options
Output debug log. The debug_options string often is 'd:t:o,filename'.
-? or --help
Display a help message and exit.
-O var=option, --set-variable var=option
Set the value of a variable. Please note that --set-variable is deprecated since MySQL 4.0, just use --var=option on its own. The possible variables and their default values for myisamchk can be examined with myisamchk --help:
Variable Value
key_buffer_size 523264
read_buffer_size 262136
write_buffer_size 262136
sort_buffer_size 2097144
sort_key_blocks 16
decode_bits 9
sort_buffer_size is used when the keys are repaired by sorting keys, which is the normal case when you use --recover. key_buffer_size is used when you are checking the table with --extended-check or when the keys are repaired by inserting key row by row in to the table (like when doing normal inserts). Repairing through the key buffer is used in the following cases: Reparing through the key buffer takes much less disk space than using sorting, but is also much slower. If you want a faster repair, set the above variables to about 1/4 of your available memory. You can set both variables to big values, as only one of the above buffers will be used at a time.
-s or --silent
Silent mode. Write output only when errors occur. You can use -s twice (-ss) to make myisamchk very silent.
-v or --verbose
Verbose mode. Print more information. This can be used with -d and -e. Use -v multiple times (-vv, -vvv) for more verbosity!
-V or --version
Print the myisamchk version and exit.
-w or, --wait
Instead of giving an error if the table is locked, wait until the table is unlocked before continuing. Note that if you are running mysqld on the table with --skip-external-locking, the table can only be locked by another myisamchk command.

4.4.6.3 Check Options for myisamchk

-c or --check
Check table for errors. This is the default operation if you are not giving myisamchk any options that override this.
-e or --extend-check
Check the table very thoroughly (which is quite slow if you have many indexes). This option should only be used in extreme cases. Normally, myisamchk or myisamchk --medium-check should, in most cases, be able to find out if there are any errors in the table. If you are using --extended-check and have much memory, you should increase the value of key_buffer_size a lot!
-F or --fast
Check only tables that haven't been closed properly.
-C or --check-only-changed
Check only tables that have changed since the last check.
-f or --force
Restart myisamchk with -r (repair) on the table, if myisamchk finds any errors in the table.
-i or --information
Print informational statistics about the table that is checked.
-m or --medium-check
Faster than extended-check, but only finds 99.99% of all errors. Should, however, be good enough for most cases.
-U or --update-state
Store in the `.MYI' file when the table was checked and if the table crashed. This should be used to get full benefit of the --check-only-changed option, but you shouldn't use this option if the mysqld server is using the table and you are running mysqld with --skip-external-locking.
-T or --read-only
Don't mark table as checked. This is useful if you use myisamchk to check a table that is in use by some other application that doesn't use locking (like mysqld --skip-external-locking).

4.4.6.4 Repair Options for myisamchk

The following options are used if you start myisamchk with -r or -o:

-D # or --data-file-length=#
Max length of datafile (when re-creating datafile when it's 'full').
-e or --extend-check
Try to recover every possible row from the datafile. Normally this will also find a lot of garbage rows. Don't use this option if you are not totally desperate.
-f or --force
Overwrite old temporary files (table_name.TMD) instead of aborting.
-k # or keys-used=#
If you are using ISAM, tells the ISAM storage engine to update only the first # indexes. If you are using MyISAM, tells which keys to use, where each binary bit stands for one key (first key is bit 0). This can be used to get faster inserts! Deactivated indexes can be reactivated by using myisamchk -r. keys.
-l or --no-symlinks
Do not follow symbolic links. Normally myisamchk repairs the table a symlink points at. This option doesn't exist in MySQL 4.0, as MySQL 4.0 will not remove symlinks during repair.
-r or --recover
Can fix almost anything except unique keys that aren't unique (which is an extremely unlikely error with ISAM/MyISAM tables). If you want to recover a table, this is the option to try first. Only if myisamchk reports that the table can't be recovered by -r, you should then try -o. (Note that in the unlikely case that -r fails, the datafile is still intact.) If you have lots of memory, you should increase the size of sort_buffer_size!
-o or --safe-recover
Uses an old recovery method (reads through all rows in order and updates all index trees based on the found rows); this is an order of magnitude slower than -r, but can handle a couple of very unlikely cases that -r cannot handle. This recovery method also uses much less disk space than -r. Normally one should always first repair with -r, and only if this fails use -o. If you have lots of memory, you should increase the size of key_buffer_size!
-n or --sort-recover
Force myisamchk to use sorting to resolve the keys even if the temporary files should be very big.
--character-sets-dir=...
Directory where character sets are stored.
--set-character-set=name
Change the character set used by the index
-t or --tmpdir=path
Path for storing temporary files. If this is not set, myisamchk will use the environment variable TMPDIR for this. Starting from MySQL 4.1, tmpdir can be set to a list of paths separated by colon : (semicolon ; on Windows). They will be used in round-robin fashion.
-q or --quick
Faster repair by not modifying the datafile. One can give a second -q to force myisamchk to modify the original datafile in case of duplicate keys
-u or --unpack
Unpack file packed with myisampack.

4.4.6.5 Other Options for myisamchk

Other actions that myisamchk can do, besides repair and check tables:

-a or --analyze
Analyse the distribution of keys. This improves join performance by enabling the join optimiser to better choose in which order it should join the tables and which keys it should use: myisamchk --describe --verbose table_name' or using SHOW KEYS in MySQL.
-d or --description
Prints some information about table.
-A or --set-auto-increment[=value]
Force AUTO_INCREMENT to start at this or higher value. If no value is given, then sets the next AUTO_INCREMENT value to the highest used value for the auto key + 1.
-S or --sort-index
Sort the index tree blocks in high-low order. This will optimise seeks and will make table scanning by key faster.
-R or --sort-records=#
Sorts records according to an index. This makes your data much more localised and may speed up ranged SELECT and ORDER BY operations on this index. (It may be very slow to do a sort the first time!) To find out a table's index numbers, use SHOW INDEX, which shows a table's indexes in the same order that myisamchk sees them. Indexes are numbered beginning with 1.

4.4.6.6 myisamchk Memory Usage

Memory allocation is important when you run myisamchk. myisamchk uses no more memory than you specify with the -O options. If you are going to use myisamchk on very large files, you should first decide how much memory you want it to use. The default is to use only about 3M to fix things. By using larger values, you can get myisamchk to operate faster. For example, if you have more than 32M RAM, you could use options such as these (in addition to any other options you might specify):

shell> myisamchk -O sort=16M -O key=16M -O read=1M -O write=1M ...

Using -O sort=16M should probably be enough for most cases.

Be aware that myisamchk uses temporary files in TMPDIR. If TMPDIR points to a memory filesystem, you may easily get out of memory errors. If this happens, set TMPDIR to point at some directory with more space and restart myisamchk.

When repairing, myisamchk will also need a lot of disk space:

If you have a problem with disk space during repair, you can try to use --safe-recover instead of --recover.

4.4.6.7 Using myisamchk for Crash Recovery

If you run mysqld with --skip-external-locking (which is the default on some systems, like Linux), you can't reliably use myisamchk to check a table when mysqld is using the same table. If you can be sure that no one is accessing the tables through mysqld while you run myisamchk, you only have to do mysqladmin flush-tables before you start checking the tables. If you can't guarantee the above, then you must take down mysqld while you check the tables. If you run myisamchk while mysqld is updating the tables, you may get a warning that a table is corrupt even if it isn't.

If you are not using --skip-external-locking, you can use myisamchk to check tables at any time. While you do this, all clients that try to update the table will wait until myisamchk is ready before continuing.

If you use myisamchk to repair or optimise tables, you must always ensure that the mysqld server is not using the table (this also applies if you are using --skip-external-locking). If you don't take down mysqld you should at least do a mysqladmin flush-tables before you run myisamchk. Your tables may be corrupted if the server and myisamchk access the tables simultaneously.

This chapter describes how to check for and deal with data corruption in MySQL databases. If your tables get corrupted frequently you should try to find the reason for this! See section A.4.1 What To Do If MySQL Keeps Crashing.

The MyISAM table section contains reason for why a table could be corrupted. See section 7.1.3 MyISAM Table Problems.

When performing crash recovery, it is important to understand that each table tbl_name in a database corresponds to three files in the database directory:

File Purpose
`tbl_name.frm' Table definition (form) file
`tbl_name.MYD' Datafile
`tbl_name.MYI' Index file

Each of these three file types is subject to corruption in various ways, but problems occur most often in datafiles and index files.

myisamchk works by creating a copy of the `.MYD' (data) file row by row. It ends the repair stage by removing the old `.MYD' file and renaming the new file to the original file name. If you use --quick, myisamchk does not create a temporary `.MYD' file, but instead assumes that the `.MYD' file is correct and only generates a new index file without touching the `.MYD' file. This is safe, because myisamchk automatically detects if the `.MYD' file is corrupt and aborts the repair in this case. You can also give two --quick options to myisamchk. In this case, myisamchk does not abort on some errors (like duplicate key) but instead tries to resolve them by modifying the `.MYD' file. Normally the use of two --quick options is useful only if you have too little free disk space to perform a normal repair. In this case you should at least make a backup before running myisamchk.

4.4.6.8 How to Check Tables for Errors

To check a MyISAM table, use the following commands:

myisamchk tbl_name
This finds 99.99% of all errors. What it can't find is corruption that involves only the datafile (which is very unusual). If you want to check a table, you should normally run myisamchk without options or with either the -s or --silent option.
myisamchk -m tbl_name
This finds 99.999% of all errors. It checks first all index entries for errors and then it reads through all rows. It calculates a checksum for all keys in the rows and verifies that they checksum matches the checksum for the keys in the index tree.
myisamchk -e tbl_name
This does a complete and thorough check of all data (-e means ``extended check''). It does a check-read of every key for each row to verify that they indeed point to the correct row. This may take a long time on a big table with many keys. myisamchk will normally stop after the first error it finds. If you want to obtain more information, you can add the --verbose (-v) option. This causes myisamchk to keep going, up through a maximum of 20 errors. In normal usage, a simple myisamchk (with no arguments other than the table name) is sufficient.
myisamchk -e -i tbl_name
Like the previous command, but the -i option tells myisamchk to print some informational statistics, too.

4.4.6.9 How to Repair Tables

In the following section we only talk about using myisamchk on MyISAM tables (extensions `.MYI' and `.MYD'). If you are using ISAM tables (extensions `.ISM' and `.ISD'), you should use isamchk instead.

Starting with MySQL Version 3.23.14, you can repair MyISAM tables with the REPAIR TABLE command. See section 4.4.5 REPAIR TABLE Syntax.

The symptoms of a corrupted table include queries that abort unexpectedly and observable errors such as these:

In the other cases, you must repair your tables. myisamchk can usually detect and fix most things that go wrong.

The repair process involves up to four stages, described here. Before you begin, you should cd to the database directory and check the permissions of the table files. Make sure they are readable by the Unix user that mysqld runs as (and to you, because you need to access the files you are checking). If it turns out you need to modify files, they must also be writable by you.

If you are using MySQL Version 3.23.16 and above, you can (and should) use the CHECK and REPAIR commands to check and repair MyISAM tables. See section 4.4.4 CHECK TABLE Syntax. See section 4.4.5 REPAIR TABLE Syntax.

The manual section about table maintenance includes the options to isamchk/myisamchk. See section 4.4.6 Using myisamchk for Table Maintenance and Crash Recovery.

The following section is for the cases where the above command fails or if you want to use the extended features that isamchk/myisamchk provides.

If you are going to repair a table from the command-line, you must first take down the mysqld server. Note that when you do mysqladmin shutdown on a remote server, the mysqld server will still be alive for a while after mysqladmin returns, until all queries are stopped and all keys have been flushed to disk.

Stage 1: Checking your tables

Run myisamchk *.MYI or myisamchk -e *.MYI if you have more time. Use the -s (silent) option to suppress unnecessary information.

If the mysqld server is done you should use the --update option to tell myisamchk to mark the table as 'checked'.

You have to repair only those tables for which myisamchk announces an error. For such tables, proceed to Stage 2.

If you get weird errors when checking (such as out of memory errors), or if myisamchk crashes, go to Stage 3.

Stage 2: Easy safe repair

Note: If you want repairing to go much faster, you should add: -O sort_buffer=# -O key_buffer=# (where # is about 1/4 of the available memory) to all isamchk/myisamchk commands.

First, try myisamchk -r -q tbl_name (-r -q means ``quick recovery mode''). This will attempt to repair the index file without touching the datafile. If the datafile contains everything that it should and the delete links point at the correct locations within the datafile, this should work, and the table is fixed. Start repairing the next table. Otherwise, use the following procedure:

  1. Make a backup of the datafile before continuing.
  2. Use myisamchk -r tbl_name (-r means ``recovery mode''). This will remove incorrect records and deleted records from the datafile and reconstruct the index file.
  3. If the preceding step fails, use myisamchk --safe-recover tbl_name. Safe recovery mode uses an old recovery method that handles a few cases that regular recovery mode doesn't (but is slower).

If you get weird errors when repairing (such as out of memory errors), or if myisamchk crashes, go to Stage 3.

Stage 3: Difficult repair

You should only reach this stage if the first 16K block in the index file is destroyed or contains incorrect information, or if the index file is missing. In this case, it's necessary to create a new index file. Do so as follows:

  1. Move the datafile to some safe place.
  2. Use the table description file to create new (empty) data and index files:
    shell> mysql db_name
    mysql> SET AUTOCOMMIT=1;
    mysql> TRUNCATE TABLE table_name;
    mysql> quit
    
    If your SQL version doesn't have TRUNCATE TABLE, use DELETE FROM table_name instead.
  3. Copy the old datafile back onto the newly created datafile. (Don't just move the old file back onto the new file; you want to retain a copy in case something goes wrong.)

Go back to Stage 2. myisamchk -r -q should work now. (This shouldn't be an endless loop.)

As of MySQL 4.0.2 you can also use REPAIR ... USE_FRM which performs the whole procedure automatically.

Stage 4: Very difficult repair

You should reach this stage only if the description file has also crashed. That should never happen, because the description file isn't changed after the table is created:

  1. Restore the description file from a backup and go back to Stage 3. You can also restore the index file and go back to Stage 2. In the latter case, you should start with myisamchk -r.
  2. If you don't have a backup but know exactly how the table was created, create a copy of the table in another database. Remove the new datafile, then move the description and index files from the other database to your crashed database. This gives you new description and index files, but leaves the datafile alone. Go back to Stage 2 and attempt to reconstruct the index file.

4.4.6.10 Table Optimisation

To coalesce fragmented records and eliminate wasted space resulting from deleting or updating records, run myisamchk in recovery mode:

shell> myisamchk -r tbl_name

You can optimise a table in the same way using the SQL OPTIMIZE TABLE statement. OPTIMIZE TABLE does a repair of the table and a key analysis, and also sorts the index tree to give faster key lookups. There is also no possibility of unwanted interaction between a utility and the server, because the server does all the work when you use OPTIMIZE TABLE. See section 4.5.1 OPTIMIZE TABLE Syntax.

myisamchk also has a number of other options you can use to improve the performance of a table:

For a full description of the option. See section 4.4.6.1 myisamchk Invocation Syntax.

4.4.7 Setting Up a Table Maintenance Regimen

Starting with MySQL Version 3.23.13, you can check MyISAM tables with the CHECK TABLE command. See section 4.4.4 CHECK TABLE Syntax. You can repair tables with the REPAIR TABLE command. See section 4.4.5 REPAIR TABLE Syntax.

It is a good idea to perform table checks on a regular basis rather than waiting for problems to occur. For maintenance purposes, you can use myisamchk -s to check tables. The -s option (short for --silent) causes myisamchk to run in silent mode, printing messages only when errors occur.

It's also a good idea to check tables when the server starts up. For example, whenever the machine has done a reboot in the middle of an update, you usually need to check all the tables that could have been affected. (This is an ``expected crashed table''.) You could add a test to safe_mysqld that runs myisamchk to check all tables that have been modified during the last 24 hours if there is an old `.pid' (process ID) file left after a reboot. (The `.pid' file is created by mysqld when it starts up and removed when it terminates normally. The presence of a `.pid' file at system startup time indicates that mysqld terminated abnormally.)

An even better test would be to check any table whose last-modified time is more recent than that of the `.pid' file.

You should also check your tables regularly during normal system operation. At MySQL AB, we run a cron job to check all our important tables once a week, using a line like this in a `crontab' file:

35 0 * * 0 /path/to/myisamchk --fast --silent /path/to/datadir/*/*.MYI

This prints out information about crashed tables so we can examine and repair them when needed.

As we haven't had any unexpectedly crashed tables (tables that become corrupted for reasons other than hardware trouble) for a couple of years now (this is really true), once a week is more than enough for us.

We recommend that to start with, you execute myisamchk -s each night on all tables that have been updated during the last 24 hours, until you come to trust MySQL as much as we do.

Normally you don't need to maintain MySQL tables that much. If you are changing tables with dynamic size rows (tables with VARCHAR, BLOB or TEXT columns) or have tables with many deleted rows you may want to from time to time (once a month?) defragment/reclaim space from the tables.

You can do this by using OPTIMIZE TABLE on the tables in question or if you can take the mysqld server down for a while do:

isamchk -r --silent --sort-index -O sort_buffer_size=16M */*.ISM
myisamchk -r --silent --sort-index  -O sort_buffer_size=16M */*.MYI

4.4.8 Getting Information About a Table

To get a description of a table or statistics about it, use the commands shown here. We explain some of the information in more detail later:

Example of myisamchk -d output:

MyISAM file:     company.MYI
Record format:   Fixed length
Data records:    1403698  Deleted blocks:         0
Recordlength:    226

table description:
Key Start Len Index   Type
1   2     8   unique  double
2   15    10  multip. text packed stripped
3   219   8   multip. double
4   63    10  multip. text packed stripped
5   167   2   multip. unsigned short
6   177   4   multip. unsigned long
7   155   4   multip. text
8   138   4   multip. unsigned long
9   177   4   multip. unsigned long
    193   1           text

Example of myisamchk -d -v output:

MyISAM file:         company
Record format:       Fixed length
File-version:        1
Creation time:       1999-10-30 12:12:51
Recover time:        1999-10-31 19:13:01
Status:              checked
Data records:           1403698  Deleted blocks:              0
Datafile parts:         1403698  Deleted data:                0
Datafilepointer (bytes):      3  Keyfile pointer (bytes):     3
Max datafile length: 3791650815  Max keyfile length: 4294967294
Recordlength:               226

table description:
Key Start Len Index   Type                  Rec/key     Root Blocksize
1   2     8   unique  double                      1 15845376      1024
2   15    10  multip. text packed stripped        2 25062400      1024
3   219   8   multip. double                     73 40907776      1024
4   63    10  multip. text packed stripped        5 48097280      1024
5   167   2   multip. unsigned short           4840 55200768      1024
6   177   4   multip. unsigned long            1346 65145856      1024
7   155   4   multip. text                     4995 75090944      1024
8   138   4   multip. unsigned long              87 85036032      1024
9   177   4   multip. unsigned long             178 96481280      1024
    193   1           text

Example of myisamchk -eis output:

Checking MyISAM file: company
Key:  1:  Keyblocks used:  97%  Packed:    0%  Max levels:  4
Key:  2:  Keyblocks used:  98%  Packed:   50%  Max levels:  4
Key:  3:  Keyblocks used:  97%  Packed:    0%  Max levels:  4
Key:  4:  Keyblocks used:  99%  Packed:   60%  Max levels:  3
Key:  5:  Keyblocks used:  99%  Packed:    0%  Max levels:  3
Key:  6:  Keyblocks used:  99%  Packed:    0%  Max levels:  3
Key:  7:  Keyblocks used:  99%  Packed:    0%  Max levels:  3
Key:  8:  Keyblocks used:  99%  Packed:    0%  Max levels:  3
Key:  9:  Keyblocks used:  98%  Packed:    0%  Max levels:  4
Total:    Keyblocks used:  98%  Packed:   17%

Records:          1403698    M.recordlength:     226
Packed:             0%
Recordspace used:     100%   Empty space:          0%
Blocks/Record:   1.00
Record blocks:    1403698    Delete blocks:        0
Recorddata:     317235748    Deleted data:         0
Lost space:             0    Linkdata:             0

User time 1626.51, System time 232.36
Maximum resident set size 0, Integral resident set size 0
Non physical pagefaults 0, Physical pagefaults 627, Swaps 0
Blocks in 0 out 0, Messages in 0 out 0, Signals 0
Voluntary context switches 639, Involuntary context switches 28966

Example of myisamchk -eiv output:

Checking MyISAM file: company
Data records: 1403698   Deleted blocks:       0
- check file-size
- check delete-chain
block_size 1024:
index  1:
index  2:
index  3:
index  4:
index  5:
index  6:
index  7:
index  8:
index  9:
No recordlinks
- check index reference
- check data record references index: 1
Key:  1:  Keyblocks used:  97%  Packed:    0%  Max levels:  4
- check data record references index: 2
Key:  2:  Keyblocks used:  98%  Packed:   50%  Max levels:  4
- check data record references index: 3
Key:  3:  Keyblocks used:  97%  Packed:    0%  Max levels:  4
- check data record references index: 4
Key:  4:  Keyblocks used:  99%  Packed:   60%  Max levels:  3
- check data record references index: 5
Key:  5:  Keyblocks used:  99%  Packed:    0%  Max levels:  3
- check data record references index: 6
Key:  6:  Keyblocks used:  99%  Packed:    0%  Max levels:  3
- check data record references index: 7
Key:  7:  Keyblocks used:  99%  Packed:    0%  Max levels:  3
- check data record references index: 8
Key:  8:  Keyblocks used:  99%  Packed:    0%  Max levels:  3
- check data record references index: 9
Key:  9:  Keyblocks used:  98%  Packed:    0%  Max levels:  4
Total:    Keyblocks used:   9%  Packed:   17%

- check records and index references
[LOTS OF ROW NUMBERS DELETED]

Records:          1403698    M.recordlength:     226   Packed:             0%
Recordspace used:     100%   Empty space:          0%  Blocks/Record:   1.00
Record blocks:    1403698    Delete blocks:        0
Recorddata:     317235748    Deleted data:         0
Lost space:             0    Linkdata:             0

User time 1639.63, System time 251.61
Maximum resident set size 0, Integral resident set size 0
Non physical pagefaults 0, Physical pagefaults 10580, Swaps 0
Blocks in 4 out 0, Messages in 0 out 0, Signals 0
Voluntary context switches 10604, Involuntary context switches 122798

Here are the sizes of the data and index files for the table used in the preceding examples:

-rw-rw-r--   1 monty    tcx     317235748 Jan 12 17:30 company.MYD
-rw-rw-r--   1 davida   tcx      96482304 Jan 12 18:35 company.MYM

Explanations for the types of information myisamchk produces are given here. The ``keyfile'' is the index file. ``Record'' and ``row'' are synonymous:

If a table has been compressed with myisampack, myisamchk -d prints additional information about each table column. See section 4.7.4 myisampack, The MySQL Compressed Read-only Table Generator, for an example of this information and a description of what it means.

4.5 Database Administration Language Reference

4.5.1 OPTIMIZE TABLE Syntax

OPTIMIZE TABLE tbl_name[,tbl_name]...

OPTIMIZE TABLE should be used if you have deleted a large part of a table or if you have made many changes to a table with variable-length rows (tables that have VARCHAR, BLOB, or TEXT columns). Deleted records are maintained in a linked list and subsequent INSERT operations reuse old record positions. You can use OPTIMIZE TABLE to reclaim the unused space and to defragment the datafile.

For the moment, OPTIMIZE TABLE works only on MyISAM and BDB tables. For BDB tables, OPTIMIZE TABLE is currently mapped to ANALYZE TABLE. See section 4.5.2 ANALYZE TABLE Syntax.

You can get OPTIMIZE TABLE to work on other table types by starting mysqld with --skip-new or --safe-mode, but in this case OPTIMIZE TABLE is just mapped to ALTER TABLE.

OPTIMIZE TABLE works the following way:

OPTIMIZE TABLE for a MyISAM table is equivalent to running myisamchk --quick --check-only-changed --sort-index --analyze on the table.

Note that the table is locked during the time OPTIMIZE TABLE is running!

4.5.2 ANALYZE TABLE Syntax

ANALYZE TABLE tbl_name[,tbl_name...]

Analyse and store the key distribution for the table. During the analysis, the table is locked with a read lock. This works on MyISAM and BDB tables.

This is equivalent to running myisamchk -a on the table.

MySQL uses the stored key distribution to decide in which order tables should be joined when one does a join on something else than a constant.

The command returns a table with the following columns:

Column Value
Table Table name
Op Always ``analyze''
Msg_type One of status, error, info or warning.
Msg_text The message.

You can check the stored key distribution with the SHOW INDEX command. See section 4.5.6.1 Retrieving information about Database, Tables, Columns, and Indexes.

If the table hasn't changed since the last ANALYZE TABLE command, the table will not be analysed again.

4.5.3 FLUSH Syntax

FLUSH flush_option [,flush_option] ...

You should use the FLUSH command if you want to clear some of the internal caches MySQL uses. To execute FLUSH, you must have the RELOAD privilege.

flush_option can be any of the following:

Option Description
HOSTS Empties the host cache tables. You should flush the host tables if some of your hosts change IP number or if you get the error message Host ... is blocked. When more than max_connect_errors errors occur in a row for a given host while connection to the MySQL server, MySQL assumes something is wrong and blocks the host from further connection requests. Flushing the host tables allows the host to attempt to connect again. See section A.2.4 Host '...' is blocked Error. You can start mysqld with -O max_connect_errors=999999999 to avoid this error message.
DES_KEY_FILE Reloads the DES keys from the file that was specified with the --des-key-file option at server startup time.
LOGS Closes and reopens all log files. If you have specified the update log file or a binary log file without an extension, the extension number of the log file will be incremented by one relative to the previous file. If you have used an extension in the file name, MySQL will close and reopen the update log file. See section 4.9.3 The Update Log. This is the same thing as sending the SIGHUP signal to the mysqld server.
PRIVILEGES Reloads the privileges from the grant tables in the mysql database.
QUERY CACHE Defragment the query cache to better utilise its memory. This command will not remove any queries from the cache, unlike RESET QUERY CACHE.
TABLES Closes all open tables and force all tables in use to be closed. This also flushes the query cache.
[TABLE | TABLES] tbl_name [,tbl_name...] Flushes only the given tables.
TABLES WITH READ LOCK Closes all open tables and locks all tables for all databases with a read lock until you execute UNLOCK TABLES. This is very convenient way to get backups if you have a filesystem, like Veritas, that can take snapshots in time.
STATUS Resets most status variables to zero. This is something one should only use when debugging a query.
USER_RESOURCES Resets all user resources to zero. This will enable blocked users to login again. See section 4.3.6 Limiting user resources.

You can also access each of the commands shown above with the mysqladmin utility, using the flush-hosts, flush-logs, reload, or flush-tables commands.

Take also a look at the RESET command used with replication. See section 4.5.4 RESET Syntax.

4.5.4 RESET Syntax

RESET reset_option [,reset_option] ...

The RESET command is used to clear things. It also acts as an stronger version of the FLUSH command. See section 4.5.3 FLUSH Syntax.

To execute RESET, you must have the RELOAD privilege.

Option Description
MASTER Deletes all binary logs listed in the index file, resetting the binlog index file to be empty. In pre-3.23.26 versions, FLUSH MASTER (Master)
SLAVE Makes the slave forget its replication position in the master logs. In pre 3.23.26 versions the command was called FLUSH SLAVE(Slave)
QUERY CACHE Removes all query results from the query cache.

4.5.5 KILL Syntax

KILL thread_id

Each connection to mysqld runs in a separate thread. You can see which threads are running with the SHOW PROCESSLIST command and kill a thread with the KILL thread_id command.

If you have the PROCESS privilege, you can see all threads. If you have the SUPER privilege, you can kill all threads. Otherwise, you can only see and kill your own threads.

You can also use the mysqladmin processlist and mysqladmin kill commands to examine and kill threads.

When you do a KILL, a thread-specific kill flag is set for the thread.

In most cases it may take some time for the thread to die as the kill flag is only checked at specific intervals.

4.5.6 SHOW Syntax

   SHOW DATABASES [LIKE wild]
or SHOW [OPEN] TABLES [FROM db_name] [LIKE wild]
or SHOW [FULL] COLUMNS FROM tbl_name [FROM db_name] [LIKE wild]
or SHOW INDEX FROM tbl_name [FROM db_name]
or SHOW TABLE STATUS [FROM db_name] [LIKE wild]
or SHOW STATUS [LIKE wild]
or SHOW VARIABLES [LIKE wild]
or SHOW LOGS
or SHOW [FULL] PROCESSLIST
or SHOW GRANTS FOR user
or SHOW CREATE TABLE table_name
or SHOW MASTER STATUS
or SHOW MASTER LOGS
or SHOW SLAVE STATUS
or SHOW WARNINGS [LIMIT #]
or SHOW ERRORS [LIMIT #]
or SHOW TABLE TYPES

SHOW provides information about databases, tables, columns, or status information about the server. If the LIKE wild part is used, the wild string can be a string that uses the SQL `%' and `_' wildcard characters.

4.5.6.1 Retrieving information about Database, Tables, Columns, and Indexes

You can use db_name.tbl_name as an alternative to the tbl_name FROM db_name syntax. These two statements are equivalent:

mysql> SHOW INDEX FROM mytable FROM mydb;
mysql> SHOW INDEX FROM mydb.mytable;

SHOW DATABASES lists the databases on the MySQL server host. You can also get this list using the mysqlshow command line tool. In version 4.0.2 you will only see those databases for which you have some kind of privilege, if you don't have the global SHOW DATABASES privilege.

SHOW TABLES lists the tables in a given database. You can also get this list using the mysqlshow db_name command.

Note: if a user doesn't have any privileges for a table, the table will not show up in the output from SHOW TABLES or mysqlshow db_name.

SHOW OPEN TABLES lists the tables that are currently open in the table cache. See section 5.4.7 How MySQL Opens and Closes Tables. The Comment field tells how many times the table is cached and in_use.

SHOW COLUMNS lists the columns in a given table. If you specify the FULL option, you will also get the privileges you have for each column. If the column types are different from what you expect them to be based on a CREATE TABLE statement, note that MySQL sometimes changes column types. See section 6.5.3.1 Silent Column Specification Changes.

The DESCRIBE statement provides information similar to SHOW COLUMNS. See section 6.6.2 DESCRIBE Syntax (Get Information About Columns).

SHOW FIELDS is a synonym for SHOW COLUMNS, and SHOW KEYS is a synonym for SHOW INDEX. You can also list a table's columns or indexes with mysqlshow db_name tbl_name or mysqlshow -k db_name tbl_name.

SHOW INDEX returns the index information in a format that closely resembles the SQLStatistics call in ODBC. The following columns are returned:

Column Meaning
Table Name of the table.
Non_unique 0 if the index can't contain duplicates.
Key_name Name of the index.
Seq_in_index Column sequence number in index, starting with 1.
Column_name Column name.
Collation How the column is sorted in the index. In MySQL, this can have values `A' (Ascending) or NULL (Not sorted).
Cardinality Number of unique values in the index. This is updated by running isamchk -a.
Sub_part Number of indexed characters if the column is only partly indexed. NULL if the entire key is indexed.
Null Contains 'YES' if the column may contain NULL.
Index_type Index method used.
Comment Various remarks. For now, it tells in MySQL < 4.0.2 whether index is FULLTEXT or not.

Note that as the Cardinality is counted based on statistics stored as integers, it's not necessarily accurate for small tables.

The Null and Index_type columns were added in MySQL 4.0.2.

4.5.6.2 SHOW TABLE STATUS

SHOW TABLE STATUS [FROM db_name] [LIKE wild]

SHOW TABLE STATUS (new in Version 3.23) works likes SHOW STATUS, but provides a lot of information about each table. You can also get this list using the mysqlshow --status db_name command. The following columns are returned:

Column Meaning
Name Name of the table.
Type Type of table. See section 7 MySQL Table Types.
Row_format The row storage format (Fixed, Dynamic, or Compressed).
Rows Number of rows.
Avg_row_length Average row length.
Data_length Length of the datafile.
Max_data_length Max length of the datafile.
Index_length Length of the index file.
Data_free Number of allocated but not used bytes.
Auto_increment Next autoincrement value.
Create_time When the table was created.
Update_time When the datafile was last updated.
Check_time When the table was last checked.
Create_options Extra options used with CREATE TABLE.
Comment The comment used when creating the table (or some information why MySQL couldn't access the table information).

InnoDB tables will report the free space in the tablespace in the table comment.

4.5.6.3 SHOW STATUS

SHOW STATUS provides server status information (like mysqladmin extended-status). The output resembles that shown here, though the format and numbers probably differ:

+--------------------------+------------+
| Variable_name            | Value      |
+--------------------------+------------+
| Aborted_clients          | 0          |
| Aborted_connects         | 0          |
| Bytes_received           | 155372598  |
| Bytes_sent               | 1176560426 |
| Connections              | 30023      |
| Created_tmp_disk_tables  | 0          |
| Created_tmp_tables       | 8340       |
| Created_tmp_files        | 60         |
| Delayed_insert_threads   | 0          |
| Delayed_writes           | 0          |
| Delayed_errors           | 0          |
| Flush_commands           | 1          |
| Handler_delete           | 462604     |
| Handler_read_first       | 105881     |
| Handler_read_key         | 27820558   |
| Handler_read_next        | 390681754  |
| Handler_read_prev        | 6022500    |
| Handler_read_rnd         | 30546748   |
| Handler_read_rnd_next    | 246216530  |
| Handler_update           | 16945404   |
| Handler_write            | 60356676   |
| Key_blocks_used          | 14955      |
| Key_read_requests        | 96854827   |
| Key_reads                | 162040     |
| Key_write_requests       | 7589728    |
| Key_writes               | 3813196    |
| Max_used_connections     | 0          |
| Not_flushed_key_blocks   | 0          |
| Not_flushed_delayed_rows | 0          |
| Open_tables              | 1          |
| Open_files               | 2          |
| Open_streams             | 0          |
| Opened_tables            | 44600      |
| Questions                | 2026873    |
| Select_full_join         | 0          |
| Select_full_range_join   | 0          |
| Select_range             | 99646      |
| Select_range_check       | 0          |
| Select_scan              | 30802      |
| Slave_running            | OFF        |
| Slave_open_temp_tables   | 0          |
| Slow_launch_threads      | 0          |
| Slow_queries             | 0          |
| Sort_merge_passes        | 30         |
| Sort_range               | 500        |
| Sort_rows                | 30296250   |
| Sort_scan                | 4650       |
| Table_locks_immediate    | 1920382    |
| Table_locks_waited       | 0          |
| Threads_cached           | 0          |
| Threads_created          | 30022      |
| Threads_connected        | 1          |
| Threads_running          | 1          |
| Uptime                   | 80380      |
+--------------------------+------------+

The status variables listed above have the following meaning:

Variable Meaning
Aborted_clients Number of connections aborted because the client died without closing the connection properly. See section A.2.9 Communication Errors / Aborted Connection.
Aborted_connects Number of tries to connect to the MySQL server that failed. See section A.2.9 Communication Errors / Aborted Connection.
Bytes_received Number of bytes received from all clients.
Bytes_sent Number of bytes sent to all clients.
Com_xxx Number of times each xxx command has been executed.
Connections Number of connection attempts to the MySQL server.
Created_tmp_disk_tables Number of implicit temporary tables on disk created while executing statements.
Created_tmp_tables Number of implicit temporary tables in memory created while executing statements.
Created_tmp_files How many temporary files mysqld has created.
Delayed_insert_threads Number of delayed insert handler threads in use.
Delayed_writes Number of rows written with INSERT DELAYED.
Delayed_errors Number of rows written with INSERT DELAYED for which some error occurred (probably duplicate key).
Flush_commands Number of executed FLUSH commands.
Handler_commit Number of internal COMMIT commands.
Handler_delete Number of times a row was deleted from a table.
Handler_read_first Number of times the first entry was read from an index. If this is high, it suggests that the server is doing a lot of full index scans, for example, SELECT col1 FROM foo, assuming that col1 is indexed.
Handler_read_key Number of requests to read a row based on a key. If this is high, it is a good indication that your queries and tables are properly indexed.
Handler_read_next Number of requests to read next row in key order. This will be incremented if you are querying an index column with a range constraint. This also will be incremented if you are doing an index scan.
Handler_read_prev Number of requests to read previous row in key order. This is mainly used to optimise ORDER BY ... DESC.
Handler_read_rnd Number of requests to read a row based on a fixed position. This will be high if you are doing a lot of queries that require sorting of the result.
Handler_read_rnd_next Number of requests to read the next row in the datafile. This will be high if you are doing a lot of table scans. Generally this suggests that your tables are not properly indexed or that your queries are not written to take advantage of the indexes you have.
Handler_rollback Number of internal ROLLBACK commands.
Handler_update Number of requests to update a row in a table.
Handler_write Number of requests to insert a row in a table.
Key_blocks_used The number of used blocks in the key cache.
Key_read_requests The number of requests to read a key block from the cache.
Key_reads The number of physical reads of a key block from disk.
Key_write_requests The number of requests to write a key block to the cache.
Key_writes The number of physical writes of a key block to disk.
Max_used_connections The maximum number of connections in use simultaneously.
Not_flushed_key_blocks Keys blocks in the key cache that has changed but hasn't yet been flushed to disk.
Not_flushed_delayed_rows Number of rows waiting to be written in INSERT DELAY queues.
Open_tables Number of tables that are open.
Open_files Number of files that are open.
Open_streams Number of streams that are open (used mainly for logging).
Opened_tables Number of tables that have been opened.
Rpl_status Status of failsafe replication. (Not yet in use).
Select_full_join Number of joins without keys (If this is 0, you should carefully check the index of your tables).
Select_full_range_join Number of joins where we used a range search on reference table.
Select_range Number of joins where we used ranges on the first table. (It's normally not critical even if this is big.)
Select_scan Number of joins where we did a full scan of the first table.
Select_range_check Number of joins without keys where we check for key usage after each row (If this is 0, you should carefully check the index of your tables).
Questions Number of queries sent to the server.
Slave_open_temp_tables Number of temporary tables currently open by the slave thread
Slave_running Is ON if this is a slave that is connected to a master.
Slow_launch_threads Number of threads that have taken more than slow_launch_time to create.
Slow_queries Number of queries that have taken more than long_query_time. See section 4.9.5 The Slow Query Log.
Sort_merge_passes Number of merges passes the sort algoritm have had to do. If this value is large you should consider increasing sort_buffer.
Sort_range Number of sorts that where done with ranges.
Sort_rows Number of sorted rows.
Sort_scan Number of sorts that where done by scanning the table.
ssl_xxx Variables used by SSL; Not yet implemented.
Table_locks_immediate Number of times a table lock was acquired immediately. Available after 3.23.33.
Table_locks_waited Number of times a table lock could not be acquired immediately and a wait was needed. If this is high, and you have performance problems, you should first optimise your queries, and then either split your table(s) or use replication. Available after 3.23.33.
Threads_cached Number of threads in the thread cache.
Threads_connected Number of currently open connections.
Threads_created Number of threads created to handle connections.
Threads_running Number of threads that are not sleeping.
Uptime How many seconds the server has been up.

Some comments about the above:

4.5.6.4 SHOW VARIABLES

SHOW [GLOBAL | SESSION] VARIABLES [LIKE wild]

SHOW VARIABLES shows the values of some MySQL system variables. You can also get this information using the mysqladmin variables command. If the default values are unsuitable, you can set most of these variables using command-line options when mysqld starts up. See section 4.1.1 mysqld Command-line Options.

The options GLOBAL and SESSION are new in MySQL 4.0.3. With GLOBAL you will get the variables that will be used for new connections to MySQL. With SESSION you will get the values that are in effect for the current connection. If you are not using either option, SESSION is used.

You can change most options with the SET command. See section 5.5.6 SET Syntax.

The output resembles that shown here, though the format and numbers may differ somewhat:

+---------------------------------+------------------------------+
| Variable_name                   | Value                        |
+---------------------------------+------------------------------|
| back_log                        | 50                           |
| basedir                         | /usr/local/mysql             |
| bdb_cache_size                  | 8388572                      |
| bdb_log_buffer_size             | 32768                        |
| bdb_home                        | /usr/local/mysql             |
| bdb_max_lock                    | 10000                        |
| bdb_logdir                      |                              |
| bdb_shared_data                 | OFF                          |
| bdb_tmpdir                      | /tmp/                        |
| bdb_version                     | Sleepycat Software: ...	 |
| binlog_cache_size               | 32768                        |
| bulk_insert_buffer_size         | 8388608                      |
| character_set                   | latin1                       |
| character_sets                  | latin1 big5 czech euc_kr	 |
| concurrent_insert               | ON                           |
| connect_timeout                 | 5                            |
| convert_character_set           |                              |
| datadir                         | /usr/local/mysql/data/       |
| delay_key_write                 | ON                           |
| delayed_insert_limit            | 100                          |
| delayed_insert_timeout          | 300                          |
| delayed_queue_size              | 1000                         |
| flush                           | OFF                          |
| flush_time                      | 0                            |
| ft_boolean_syntax               | + -><()~*:""&|               |
| ft_min_word_len                 | 4                            |
| ft_max_word_len                 | 254                          |
| ft_max_word_len_for_sort        | 20                           |
| ft_stopword_file                | (built-in)                   |
| have_bdb                        | YES                          |
| have_innodb                     | YES                          |
| have_isam                       | YES                          |
| have_raid                       | NO                           |
| have_symlink                    | DISABLED                     |
| have_openssl                    | YES                          |
| have_query_cache                | YES                          |
| init_file                       |                              |
| innodb_additional_mem_pool_size | 1048576                      |
| innodb_buffer_pool_size         | 8388608                      |
| innodb_data_file_path           | ibdata1:10M:autoextend       |
| innodb_data_home_dir            |                              |
| innodb_file_io_threads          | 4                            |
| innodb_force_recovery           | 0                            |
| innodb_thread_concurrency       | 8                            |
| innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit  | 0                            |
| innodb_fast_shutdown            | ON                           |
| innodb_flush_method             |                              |
| innodb_lock_wait_timeout        | 50                           |
| innodb_log_arch_dir             |                              |
| innodb_log_archive              | OFF                          |
| innodb_log_buffer_size          | 1048576                      |
| innodb_log_file_size            | 5242880                      |
| innodb_log_files_in_group       | 2                            |
| innodb_log_group_home_dir       | ./                           |
| innodb_mirrored_log_groups      | 1                            |
| interactive_timeout             | 28800                        |
| join_buffer_size                | 131072                       |
| key_buffer_size                 | 16773120                     |
| language                        | /usr/local/mysql/share/...   |
| large_files_support             | ON                           |
| local_infile                    | ON                           |
| locked_in_memory                | OFF                          |
| log                             | OFF                          |
| log_update                      | OFF                          |
| log_bin                         | OFF                          |
| log_slave_updates               | OFF                          |
| log_slow_queries                | OFF                          |
| log_warnings                    | OFF                          |
| long_query_time                 | 10                           |
| low_priority_updates            | OFF                          |
| lower_case_table_names          | OFF                          |
| max_allowed_packet              | 1047552                      |
| max_binlog_cache_size           | 4294967295                   |
| max_binlog_size                 | 1073741824                   |
| max_connections                 | 100                          |
| max_connect_errors              | 10                           |
| max_delayed_threads             | 20                           |
| max_heap_table_size             | 16777216                     |
| max_join_size                   | 4294967295                   |
| max_sort_length                 | 1024                         |
| max_user_connections            | 0                            |
| max_tmp_tables                  | 32                           |
| max_write_lock_count            | 4294967295                   |
| myisam_max_extra_sort_file_size | 268435456                    |
| myisam_max_sort_file_size       | 2147483647                   |
| myisam_recover_options          | force                        |
| myisam_sort_buffer_size         | 8388608                      |
| net_buffer_length               | 16384                        |
| net_read_timeout                | 30                           |
| net_retry_count                 | 10                           |
| net_write_timeout               | 60                           |
| open_files_limit                | 0                            |
| pid_file                        | /usr/local/mysql/name.pid    |
| port                            | 3306                         |
| protocol_version                | 10                           |
| read_buffer_size                | 131072                       |
| read_rnd_buffer_size            | 262144                       |
| rpl_recovery_rank               | 0                            |
| query_cache_limit               | 1048576                      |
| query_cache_size                | 0                            |
| query_cache_type                | ON                           |
| safe_show_database              | OFF                          |
| server_id                       | 0                            |
| slave_net_timeout               | 3600                         |
| skip_external_locking           | ON                           |
| skip_networking                 | OFF                          |
| skip_show_database              | OFF                          |
| slow_launch_time                | 2                            |
| socket                          | /tmp/mysql.sock              |
| sort_buffer_size                | 2097116                      |
| sql_mode                        | 0                            |
| table_cache                     | 64                           |
| table_type                      | MYISAM                       |
| thread_cache_size               | 3                            |
| thread_stack                    | 131072                       |
| tx_isolation                    | READ-COMMITTED               |
| timezone                        | EEST                         |
| tmp_table_size                  | 33554432                     |
| tmpdir                          | /tmp/:/mnt/hd2/tmp/          |
| version                         | 4.0.4-beta                   |
| wait_timeout                    | 28800                        |
+---------------------------------+------------------------------+

Each option is described here. Values for buffer sizes, lengths, and stack sizes are given in bytes. You can specify values with a suffix of `K' or `M' to indicate kilobytes or megabytes. For example, 16M indicates 16 megabytes. The case of suffix letters does not matter; 16M and 16m are equivalent:

The manual section that describes tuning MySQL contains some information of how to tune the above variables. See section 5.5.2 Tuning Server Parameters.

4.5.6.5 SHOW LOGS

SHOW LOGS shows you status information about existing log files. It currently only displays information about Berkeley DB log files.

4.5.6.6 SHOW PROCESSLIST

SHOW [FULL] PROCESSLIST shows you which threads are running. You can also get this information using the mysqladmin processlist command. If you have the SUPER privilege, you can see all threads. Otherwise, you can see only your own threads. See section 4.5.5 KILL Syntax. If you don't use the FULL option, then only the first 100 characters of each query will be shown.

Starting from 4.0.12, MySQL reports the hostname for TCP/IP connections as hostname:client_port to make it easier to find out which client is doing what.

This command is very useful if you get the 'too many connections' error message and want to find out what's going on. MySQL reserves one extra connection for a client with the SUPER privilege to ensure that you should always be able to login and check the system (assuming you are not giving this privilege to all your users).

Some states commonly seen in mysqladmin processlist

Most states are very quick operations. If threads last in any of these states for many seconds, there may be a problem around that needs to be investigated.

There are some other states that are not mentioned previously, but most of these are only useful to find bugs in mysqld.

4.5.6.7 SHOW GRANTS

SHOW GRANTS FOR user lists the grant commands that must be issued to duplicate the grants for a user.

mysql> SHOW GRANTS FOR root@localhost;
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Grants for root@localhost                                           |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+
| GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'root'@'localhost' WITH GRANT OPTION |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------+

To list grants for the current session one may use CURRENT_USER() function (new in version 4.0.6) to find out what user the session was authentificated as. See section 6.3.6.2 Miscellaneous Functions.

4.5.6.8 SHOW CREATE TABLE

Shows a CREATE TABLE statement that will create the given table:

mysql> SHOW CREATE TABLE t\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: t
Create Table: CREATE TABLE t (
  id int(11) default NULL auto_increment,
  s char(60) default NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (id)
) TYPE=MyISAM

SHOW CREATE TABLE will quote table and column names according to SQL_QUOTE_SHOW_CREATE option. section 5.5.6 SET Syntax.

4.5.6.9 SHOW WARNINGS | ERRORS

SHOW WARNINGS [LIMIT #]
SHOW ERRORS [LIMIT #]

This command is implemented in MySQL 4.1.0.

It shows the errors, warnings and notes that one got for the last command. The errors/warnings are reset for each new command that uses a table.

The MySQL server sends back the total number of warnings and errors you got for the last commend; This can be retrieved by calling mysql_warning_count().

Up to max_error_count messages are stored (Global and thread specific variable).

You can retrieve the number of errors from @error_count and warnings from @warning_count.

SHOW WARNINGS shows all errors, warnings and notes you got for the last command while SHOW ERRORS only shows you the errors.

mysql> DROP TABLE IF EXISTS no_such_table;
mysql> SHOW WARNINGS;

+-------+------+-------------------------------+
| Level | Code | Message                       |
+-------+------+-------------------------------+
| Note  | 1051 | Unknown table 'no_such_table' |
+-------+------+-------------------------------+

4.5.6.10 SHOW TABLE TYPES

SHOW TABLE TYPES

This command is implemented in MySQL 4.1.0.

SHOW TABLE TYPES shows you status information about the table types. This is particulary useful for checking if a table type is supported; or to see what is the default table type is.

mysql> SHOW TABLE TYPES;

+--------+---------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
| Type   | Support | Comment                                                   |
+--------+---------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
| MyISAM | DEFAULT | Default type from 3.23 with great performance             |
| HEAP   | YES     | Hash based, stored in memory, useful for temporary tables |
| MERGE  | YES     | Collection of identical MyISAM tables                     |
| ISAM   | YES     | Obsolete table type; Is replaced by MyISAM                |
| InnoDB | YES     | Supports transactions, row-level locking and foreign keys |
| BDB    | NO      | Supports transactions and page-level locking              |
+--------+---------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)

The 'Support' option DEFAULT indicates whether the perticular table type is supported, and which is the default type. If the server is started with --default-table-type=InnoDB, then the InnoDB 'Support' field will have the value DEFAULT.

4.5.6.11 SHOW PRIVILEGES

SHOW PRIVILEGES

This command is implemented in MySQL 4.1.0.

SHOW PRIVILEGES shows the list of system privileges that the underlying MySQL server supports.

mysql> show privileges;
+------------+--------------------------+-------------------------------------------------------+
| Privilege  | Context                  | Comment                                               |
+------------+--------------------------+-------------------------------------------------------+
| Select     | Tables                   | To retrieve rows from table                           |
| Insert     | Tables                   | To insert data into tables                            |
| Update     | Tables                   | To update existing rows                               |
| Delete     | Tables                   | To delete existing rows                               |
| Index      | Tables                   | To create or drop indexes                             |
| Alter      | Tables                   | To alter the table                                    |
| Create     | Databases,Tables,Indexes | To create new databases and tables                    |
| Drop       | Databases,Tables         | To drop databases and tables                          |
| Grant      | Databases,Tables         | To give to other users those privileges you possess   |
| References | Databases,Tables         | To have references on tables                          |
| Reload     | Server Admin             | To reload or refresh tables, logs and privileges      |
| Shutdown   | Server Admin             | To shutdown the server                                |
| Process    | Server Admin             | To view the plain text of currently executing queries |
| File       | File access on server    | To read and write files on the server                 |
+------------+--------------------------+-------------------------------------------------------+
14 rows in set (0.00 sec)

4.6 MySQL Localisation and International Usage

4.6.1 The Character Set Used for Data and Sorting

By default, MySQL uses the ISO-8859-1 (Latin1) character set with sorting according to Swedish/Finnish. This is the character set suitable in the USA and western Europe.

All standard MySQL binaries are compiled with --with-extra-charsets=complex. This will add code to all standard programs to be able to handle latin1 and all multi-byte character sets within the binary. Other character sets will be loaded from a character-set definition file when needed.

The character set determines what characters are allowed in names and how things are sorted by the ORDER BY and GROUP BY clauses of the SELECT statement.

You can change the character set with the --default-character-set option when you start the server. The character sets available depend on the --with-charset=charset and --with-extra-charsets= list-of-charset | complex | all options to configure, and the character set configuration files listed in `SHAREDIR/charsets/Index'. See section 2.3.3 Typical configure Options.

If you change the character set when running MySQL (which may also change the sort order), you must run myisamchk -r -q --set-character-set=charset on all tables. Otherwise, your indexes may not be ordered correctly.

When a client connects to a MySQL server, the server sends the default character set in use to the client. The client will switch to use this character set for this connection.

One should use mysql_real_escape_string() when escaping strings for a SQL query. mysql_real_escape_string() is identical to the old mysql_escape_string() function, except that it takes the MYSQL connection handle as the first parameter.

If the client is compiled with different paths than where the server is installed and the user who configured MySQL didn't include all character sets in the MySQL binary, one must specify for the client where it can find the additional character sets it will need if the server runs with a different character set than the client.

One can specify this by putting in a MySQL option file:

[client]
character-sets-dir=/usr/local/mysql/share/mysql/charsets

where the path points to the directory in which the dynamic MySQL character sets are stored.

One can force the client to use specific character set by specifying:

[client]
default-character-set=character-set-name

but normally this is never needed.

4.6.1.1 German character set

To get German sorting order, you should start mysqld with --default-character-set=latin1_de. This will give you the following characteristics.

When sorting and comparing string's the following mapping is done on the strings before doing the comparison:

  ->  ae
  ->  oe
  ->  ue
  ->  ss

All accented characters, are converted to their un-accented uppercase counterpart. All letters are converted to uppercase.

When comparing strings with LIKE the one -> two character mapping is not done. All letters are converted to uppercase. Accent are removed from all letters except: , , , , and .

4.6.2 Non-English Error Messages

mysqld can issue error messages in the following languages: Czech, Danish, Dutch, English (the default), Estonian, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Norwegian-ny, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Slovak, Spanish, and Swedish.

To start mysqld with a particular language, use either the --language=lang or -L lang options. For example:

shell> mysqld --language=swedish

or:

shell> mysqld --language=/usr/local/share/swedish

Note that all language names are specified in lowercase.

The language files are located (by default) in `mysql_base_dir/share/LANGUAGE/'.

To update the error message file, you should edit the `errmsg.txt' file and execute the following command to generate the `errmsg.sys' file:

shell> comp_err errmsg.txt errmsg.sys

If you upgrade to a newer version of MySQL, remember to repeat your changes with the new `errmsg.txt' file.

4.6.3 Adding a New Character Set

To add another character set to MySQL, use the following procedure.

Decide if the set is simple or complex. If the character set does not need to use special string collating routines for sorting and does not need multi-byte character support, it is simple. If it needs either of those features, it is complex.

For example, latin1 and danish are simple charactersets while big5 or czech are complex character sets.

In the following section, we have assumed that you name your character set MYSET.

For a simple character set do the following:

  1. Add MYSET to the end of the `sql/share/charsets/Index' file Assign a unique number to it.
  2. Create the file `sql/share/charsets/MYSET.conf'. (You can use `sql/share/charsets/latin1.conf' as a base for this.) The syntax for the file very simple: See section 4.6.4 The Character Definition Arrays.
  3. Add the character set name to the CHARSETS_AVAILABLE and COMPILED_CHARSETS lists in configure.in.
  4. Reconfigure, recompile, and test.

For a complex character set do the following:

  1. Create the file `strings/ctype-MYSET.c' in the MySQL source distribution.
  2. Add MYSET to the end of the `sql/share/charsets/Index' file. Assign a unique number to it.
  3. Look at one of the existing `ctype-*.c' files to see what needs to be defined, for example `strings/ctype-big5.c'. Note that the arrays in your file must have names like ctype_MYSET, to_lower_MYSET, and so on. This corresponds to the arrays in the simple character set. See section 4.6.4 The Character Definition Arrays. For a complex character set
  4. Near the top of the file, place a special comment like this:
    /*
     * This comment is parsed by configure to create ctype.c,
     * so don't change it unless you know what you are doing.
     *
     * .configure. number_MYSET=MYNUMBER
     * .configure. strxfrm_multiply_MYSET=N
     * .configure. mbmaxlen_MYSET=N
     */
    
    The configure program uses this comment to include the character set into the MySQL library automatically. The strxfrm_multiply and mbmaxlen lines will be explained in the following sections. Only include these if you need the string collating functions or the multi-byte character set functions, respectively.
  5. You should then create some of the following functions: See section 4.6.5 String Collating Support.
  6. Add the character set name to the CHARSETS_AVAILABLE and COMPILED_CHARSETS lists in configure.in.
  7. Reconfigure, recompile, and test.

The file `sql/share/charsets/README' includes some more instructions.

If you want to have the character set included in the MySQL distribution, mail a patch to internals@lists.mysql.com.

4.6.4 The Character Definition Arrays

to_lower[] and to_upper[] are simple arrays that hold the lowercase and uppercase characters corresponding to each member of the character set. For example:

to_lower['A'] should contain 'a'
to_upper['a'] should contain 'A'

sort_order[] is a map indicating how characters should be ordered for comparison and sorting purposes. Quite often (but not for all character sets) this is the same as to_upper[] (which means sorting will be case-insensitive). MySQL will sort characters based on the value of sort_order[character]. For more complicated sorting rules, see the discussion of string collating below. See section 4.6.5 String Collating Support.

ctype[] is an array of bit values, with one element for one character. (Note that to_lower[], to_upper[], and sort_order[] are indexed by character value, but ctype[] is indexed by character value + 1. This is an old legacy to be able to handle EOF.)

You can find the following bitmask definitions in `m_ctype.h':

#define _U      01      /* Uppercase */
#define _L      02      /* Lowercase */
#define _N      04      /* Numeral (digit) */
#define _S      010     /* Spacing character */
#define _P      020     /* Punctuation */
#define _C      040     /* Control character */
#define _B      0100    /* Blank */
#define _X      0200    /* heXadecimal digit */

The ctype[] entry for each character should be the union of the applicable bitmask values that describe the character. For example, 'A' is an uppercase character (_U) as well as a hexadecimal digit (_X), so ctype['A'+1] should contain the value:

_U + _X = 01 + 0200 = 0201

4.6.5 String Collating Support

If the sorting rules for your language are too complex to be handled with the simple sort_order[] table, you need to use the string collating functions.

Right now the best documentation on this is the character sets that are already implemented. Look at the big5, czech, gbk, sjis, and tis160 character sets for examples.

You must specify the strxfrm_multiply_MYSET=N value in the special comment at the top of the file. N should be set to the maximum ratio the strings may grow during my_strxfrm_MYSET (it must be a positive integer).

4.6.6 Multi-byte Character Support

If your want to add support for a new character set that includes multi-byte characters, you need to use the multi-byte character functions.

Right now the best documentation on this is the character sets that are already implemented. Look at the euc_kr, gb2312, gbk, sjis, and ujis character sets for examples. These are implemented in the `ctype-'charset'.c' files in the `strings' directory.

You must specify the mbmaxlen_MYSET=N value in the special comment at the top of the source file. N should be set to the size in bytes of the largest character in the set.

4.6.7 Problems With Character Sets

If you try to use a character set that is not compiled into your binary, you can run into a couple of different problems:

For MyISAM tables, you can check the character set name and number for a table with myisamchk -dvv table_name.

4.7 MySQL Server-Side Scripts and Utilities

4.7.1 Overview of the Server-Side Scripts and Utilities

All MySQL programs take many different options. However, every MySQL program provides a --help option that you can use to get a full description of the program's different options. For example, try mysql --help.

You can override default options for all standard programs with an option file. section 4.1.2 `my.cnf' Option Files.

The following list briefly describes the server-side MySQL programs:

myisamchk
Utility to describe, check, optimise, and repair MySQL tables. Because myisamchk has many functions, it is described in its own chapter. See section 4 Database Administration.
make_binary_distribution
Makes a binary release of a compiled MySQL. This could be sent by FTP to `/pub/mysql/Incoming' on support.mysql.com for the convenience of other MySQL users.
mysqlbug
The MySQL bug report script. This script should always be used when filing a bug report to the MySQL list.
mysqld
The SQL daemon. This should always be running.
mysql_install_db
Creates the MySQL grant tables with default privileges. This is usually executed only once, when first installing MySQL on a system.

4.7.2 safe_mysqld, The Wrapper Around mysqld

Note that in MySQL 4.0 safe_mysqld was renamed to mysqld_safe.

safe_mysqld is the recommended way to start a mysqld daemon on Unix. safe_mysqld adds some safety features such as restarting the server when an error occurs and logging run-time information to a log file.

If you don't use --mysqld=# or --mysqld-version=# safe_mysqld will use an executable named mysqld-max if it exists. If not, safe_mysqld will start mysqld. This makes it very easy to test to use mysqld-max instead of mysqld; just copy mysqld-max to where you have mysqld and it will be used.

Normally one should never edit the safe_mysqld script, but instead put the options to safe_mysqld in the [safe_mysqld] section in the `my.cnf' file. safe_mysqld will read all options from the [mysqld], [server] and [safe_mysqld] sections from the option files. See section 4.1.2 `my.cnf' Option Files.

Note that all options on the command-line to safe_mysqld are passed to mysqld. If you wants to use any options in safe_mysqld that mysqld doesn't support, you must specify these in the option file.

Most of the options to safe_mysqld are the same as the options to mysqld. See section 4.1.1 mysqld Command-line Options.

safe_mysqld supports the following options:

--basedir=path
--core-file-size=#
Size of the core file mysqld should be able to create. Passed to ulimit -c.
--datadir=path
--defaults-extra-file=path
--defaults-file=path
--err-log=path (this is marked obsolete in 4.0; Use --log-error instead)
--log-error=path
Write the error log to the above file. See section 4.9.1 The Error Log.
--ledir=path
Path to mysqld
--log=path
--mysqld=mysqld-version
Name of the mysqld version in the ledir directory you want to start.
--mysqld-version=version
Similar to --mysqld= but here you only give the suffix for mysqld. For example if you use --mysqld-version=max, safe_mysqld will start the ledir/mysqld-max version. If the argument to --mysqld-version is empty, ledir/mysqld will be used.
--no-defaults
--open-files-limit=#
Number of files mysqld should be able to open. Passed to ulimit -n. Note that you need to start safe_mysqld as root for this to work properly!
--pid-file=path
--port=#
--socket=path
--timezone=#
Set the timezone (the TZ) variable to the value of this parameter.
--user=#

The safe_mysqld script is written so that it normally is able to start a server that was installed from either a source or a binary version of MySQL, even if these install the server in slightly different locations. safe_mysqld expects one of these conditions to be true:

Because safe_mysqld will try to find the server and databases relative to its own working directory, you can install a binary distribution of MySQL anywhere, as long as you start safe_mysqld from the MySQL installation directory:

shell> cd mysql_installation_directory
shell> bin/safe_mysqld &

If safe_mysqld fails, even when invoked from the MySQL installation directory, you can modify it to use the path to mysqld and the pathname options that are correct for your system. Note that if you upgrade MySQL in the future, your modified version of safe_mysqld will be overwritten, so you should make a copy of your edited version that you can reinstall.

4.7.3 mysqld_multi, A Program for Managing Multiple MySQL Servers

mysqld_multi is meant for managing several mysqld processes that listen for connections on different Unix sockets and TCP/IP ports.

The program will search for group(s) named [mysqld#] from `my.cnf' (or the file named by the --config-file=... option), where # can be any positive number starting from 1. This number is referred to in the following discussion as the option group number, or GNR. Group numbers distinquish option groups from one another and are used as arguments to mysqld_multi to specify which servers you want to start, stop, or obtain status for. Options listed in these groups should be the same as you would use in the usual [mysqld] group used for starting mysqld. (See, for example, section 2.4.3 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically.) However, for mysqld_multi, be sure that each group includes options for values such as the port, socket, etc., to be used for each individual mysqld process.

mysqld_multi is invoked using the following syntax:

Usage: mysqld_multi [OPTIONS] {start|stop|report} [GNR,GNR,GNR...]
or     mysqld_multi [OPTIONS] {start|stop|report} [GNR-GNR,GNR,GNR-GNR,...]

Each GNR represents an option group number. You can start, stop or report any GNR, or several of them at the same time. For an example of how you might set up an option file, use this command:

shell> mysqld_multi --example

The GNR values in the list can be comma-separated or combined with a dash; in the latter case, all the GNRs between GNR1-GNR2 will be affected. With no GNR argument, all groups listed in the option file will be either started, stopped, or reported. Note that you must not have any white spaces in the GNR list. Anything after a white space is ignored.

mysqld_multi supports the following options:

--config-file=...
Alternative config file. Note: This will not affect this program's own options (group [mysqld_multi]), but only groups [mysqld#]. Without this option, everything will be searched from the ordinary `my.cnf' file.
--example
Display an example option file.
--help
Print this help and exit.
--log=...
Log file. Full path to and the name for the log file. Note: If the file exists, everything will be appended.
--mysqladmin=...
mysqladmin binary to be used for a server shutdown.
--mysqld=...
mysqld binary to be used. Note that you can give safe_mysqld to this option also. The options are passed to mysqld. Just make sure you have mysqld in your environment variable PATH or fix safe_mysqld.
--no-log
Print to stdout instead of the log file. By default the log file is turned on.
--password=...
Password for user for mysqladmin.
--tcp-ip
Connect to the MySQL server(s) via the TCP/IP port instead of the Unix socket. This affects stopping and reporting. If a socket file is missing, the server may still be running, but can be accessed only via the TCP/IP port. By default, connections are made using the Unix socket.
--user=...
MySQL user for mysqladmin.
--version
Print the version number and exit.

Some notes about mysqld_multi:

See section 4.1.4 Running Multiple MySQL Servers on the Same Machine.

This is an example of the config file on behalf of mysqld_multi.

# This file should probably be in your home dir (~/.my.cnf) or /etc/my.cnf
# Version 2.1 by Jani Tolonen

[mysqld_multi]
mysqld     = /usr/local/bin/safe_mysqld
mysqladmin = /usr/local/bin/mysqladmin
user       = multi_admin
password   = multipass

[mysqld2]
socket     = /tmp/mysql.sock2
port       = 3307
pid-file   = /usr/local/mysql/var2/hostname.pid2
datadir    = /usr/local/mysql/var2
language   = /usr/local/share/mysql/english
user       = john

[mysqld3]
socket     = /tmp/mysql.sock3
port       = 3308
pid-file   = /usr/local/mysql/var3/hostname.pid3
datadir    = /usr/local/mysql/var3
language   = /usr/local/share/mysql/swedish
user       = monty

[mysqld4]
socket     = /tmp/mysql.sock4
port       = 3309
pid-file   = /usr/local/mysql/var4/hostname.pid4
datadir    = /usr/local/mysql/var4
language   = /usr/local/share/mysql/estonia
user       = tonu

[mysqld6]
socket     = /tmp/mysql.sock6
port       = 3311
pid-file   = /usr/local/mysql/var6/hostname.pid6
datadir    = /usr/local/mysql/var6
language   = /usr/local/share/mysql/japanese
user       = jani

See section 4.1.2 `my.cnf' Option Files.

4.7.4 myisampack, The MySQL Compressed Read-only Table Generator

myisampack is used to compress MyISAM tables, and pack_isam is used to compress ISAM tables. Because ISAM tables are deprecated, we will only discuss myisampack here, but everything said about myisampack should also be true for pack_isam.

myisampack works by compressing each column in the table separately. The information needed to decompress columns is read into memory when the table is opened. This results in much better performance when accessing individual records, because you only have to uncompress exactly one record, not a much larger disk block as when using Stacker on MS-DOS. Usually, myisampack packs the datafile 40%-70%.

MySQL uses memory mapping (mmap()) on compressed tables and falls back to normal read/write file usage if mmap() doesn't work.

Please note the following:

myisampack is invoked like this:

shell> myisampack [options] filename ...

Each filename should be the name of an index (`.MYI') file. If you are not in the database directory, you should specify the pathname to the file. It is permissible to omit the `.MYI' extension.

myisampack supports the following options:

-b, --backup
Make a backup of the table as tbl_name.OLD.
-#, --debug=debug_options
Output debug log. The debug_options string often is 'd:t:o,filename'.
-f, --force
Force packing of the table even if it becomes bigger or if the temporary file exists. myisampack creates a temporary file named `tbl_name.TMD' while it compresses the table. If you kill myisampack, the `.TMD' file may not be deleted. Normally, myisampack exits with an error if it finds that `tbl_name.TMD' exists. With --force, myisampack packs the table anyway.
-?, --help
Display a help message and exit.
-j big_tbl_name, --join=big_tbl_name
Join all tables named on the command-line into a single table big_tbl_name. All tables that are to be combined must be identical (same column names and types, same indexes, etc.).
-p #, --packlength=#
Specify the record length storage size, in bytes. The value should be 1, 2, or 3. (myisampack stores all rows with length pointers of 1, 2, or 3 bytes. In most normal cases, myisampack can determine the right length value before it begins packing the file, but it may notice during the packing process that it could have used a shorter length. In this case, myisampack will print a note that the next time you pack the same file, you could use a shorter record length.)
-s, --silent
Silent mode. Write output only when errors occur.
-t, --test
Don't actually pack table, just test packing it.
-T dir_name, --tmp_dir=dir_name
Use the named directory as the location in which to write the temporary table.
-v, --verbose
Verbose mode. Write information about progress and packing result.
-V, --version
Display version information and exit.
-w, --wait
Wait and retry if table is in use. If the mysqld server was invoked with the --skip-external-locking option, it is not a good idea to invoke myisampack if the table might be updated during the packing process.

The sequence of commands shown here illustrates a typical table compression session:

shell> ls -l station.*
-rw-rw-r--   1 monty    my         994128 Apr 17 19:00 station.MYD
-rw-rw-r--   1 monty    my          53248 Apr 17 19:00 station.MYI
-rw-rw-r--   1 monty    my           5767 Apr 17 19:00 station.frm

shell> myisamchk -dvv station

MyISAM file:     station
Isam-version:  2
Creation time: 1996-03-13 10:08:58
Recover time:  1997-02-02  3:06:43
Data records:              1192  Deleted blocks:              0
Datafile: Parts:           1192  Deleted data:                0
Datafile pointer (bytes):     2  Keyfile pointer (bytes):     2
Max datafile length:   54657023  Max keyfile length:   33554431
Recordlength:               834
Record format: Fixed length

table description:
Key Start Len Index   Type                       Root  Blocksize    Rec/key
1   2     4   unique  unsigned long              1024       1024          1
2   32    30  multip. text                      10240       1024          1

Field Start Length Type
1     1     1
2     2     4
3     6     4
4     10    1
5     11    20
6     31    1
7     32    30
8     62    35
9     97    35
10    132   35
11    167   4
12    171   16
13    187   35
14    222   4
15    226   16
16    242   20
17    262   20
18    282   20
19    302   30
20    332   4
21    336   4
22    340   1
23    341   8
24    349   8
25    357   8
26    365   2
27    367   2
28    369   4
29    373   4
30    377   1
31    378   2
32    380   8
33    388   4
34    392   4
35    396   4
36    400   4
37    404   1
38    405   4
39    409   4
40    413   4
41    417   4
42    421   4
43    425   4
44    429   20
45    449   30
46    479   1
47    480   1
48    481   79
49    560   79
50    639   79
51    718   79
52    797   8
53    805   1
54    806   1
55    807   20
56    827   4
57    831   4

shell> myisampack station.MYI
Compressing station.MYI: (1192 records)
- Calculating statistics

normal:     20  empty-space:      16  empty-zero:        12  empty-fill:  11
pre-space:   0  end-space:        12  table-lookups:      5  zero:         7
Original trees:  57  After join: 17
- Compressing file
87.14%

shell> ls -l station.*
-rw-rw-r--   1 monty    my         127874 Apr 17 19:00 station.MYD
-rw-rw-r--   1 monty    my          55296 Apr 17 19:04 station.MYI
-rw-rw-r--   1 monty    my           5767 Apr 17 19:00 station.frm

shell> myisamchk -dvv station

MyISAM file:     station
Isam-version:  2
Creation time: 1996-03-13 10:08:58
Recover time:  1997-04-17 19:04:26
Data records:              1192  Deleted blocks:              0
Datafile: Parts:           1192  Deleted data:                0
Datafilepointer (bytes):      3  Keyfile pointer (bytes):     1
Max datafile length:   16777215  Max keyfile length:     131071
Recordlength:               834
Record format: Compressed

table description:
Key Start Len Index   Type                       Root  Blocksize    Rec/key
1   2     4   unique  unsigned long             10240       1024          1
2   32    30  multip. text                      54272       1024          1

Field Start Length Type                         Huff tree  Bits
1     1     1      constant                             1     0
2     2     4      zerofill(1)                          2     9
3     6     4      no zeros, zerofill(1)                2     9
4     10    1                                           3     9
5     11    20     table-lookup                         4     0
6     31    1                                           3     9
7     32    30     no endspace, not_always              5     9
8     62    35     no endspace, not_always, no empty    6     9
9     97    35     no empty                             7     9
10    132   35     no endspace, not_always, no empty    6     9
11    167   4      zerofill(1)                          2     9
12    171   16     no endspace, not_always, no empty    5     9
13    187   35     no endspace, not_always, no empty    6     9
14    222   4      zerofill(1)                          2     9
15    226   16     no endspace, not_always, no empty    5     9
16    242   20     no endspace, not_always              8     9
17    262   20     no endspace, no empty                8     9
18    282   20     no endspace, no empty                5     9
19    302   30     no endspace, no empty                6     9
20    332   4      always zero                          2     9
21    336   4      always zero                          2     9
22    340   1                                           3     9
23    341   8      table-lookup                         9     0
24    349   8      table-lookup                        10     0
25    357   8      always zero                          2     9
26    365   2                                           2     9
27    367   2      no zeros, zerofill(1)                2     9
28    369   4      no zeros, zerofill(1)                2     9
29    373   4      table-lookup                        11     0
30    377   1                                           3     9
31    378   2      no zeros, zerofill(1)                2     9
32    380   8      no zeros                             2     9
33    388   4      always zero                          2     9
34    392   4      table-lookup                        12     0
35    396   4      no zeros, zerofill(1)               13     9
36    400   4      no zeros, zerofill(1)                2     9
37    404   1                                           2     9
38    405   4      no zeros                             2     9
39    409   4      always zero                          2     9
40    413   4      no zeros                             2     9
41    417   4      always zero                          2     9
42    421   4      no zeros                             2     9
43    425   4      always zero                          2     9
44    429   20     no empty                             3     9
45    449   30     no empty                             3     9
46    479   1                                          14     4
47    480   1                                          14     4
48    481   79     no endspace, no empty               15     9
49    560   79     no empty                             2     9
50    639   79     no empty                             2     9
51    718   79     no endspace                         16     9
52    797   8      no empty                             2     9
53    805   1                                          17     1
54    806   1                                           3     9
55    807   20     no empty                             3     9
56    827   4      no zeros, zerofill(2)                2     9
57    831   4      no zeros, zerofill(1)                2     9

The information printed by myisampack is described here:

normal
The number of columns for which no extra packing is used.
empty-space
The number of columns containing values that are only spaces; these will occupy 1 bit.
empty-zero
The number of columns containing values that are only binary 0's; these will occupy 1 bit.
empty-fill
The number of integer columns that don't occupy the full byte range of their type; these are changed to a smaller type (for example, an INTEGER column may be changed to MEDIUMINT).
pre-space
The number of decimal columns that are stored with leading spaces. In this case, each value will contain a count for the number of leading spaces.
end-space
The number of columns that have a lot of trailing spaces. In this case, each value will contain a count for the number of trailing spaces.
table-lookup
The column had only a small number of different values, which were converted to an ENUM before Huffman compression.
zero
The number of columns for which all values are zero.
Original trees
The initial number of Huffman trees.
After join
The number of distinct Huffman trees left after joining trees to save some header space.

After a table has been compressed, myisamchk -dvv prints additional information about each field:

Type
The field type may contain the following descriptors:
constant
All rows have the same value.
no endspace
Don't store endspace.
no endspace, not_always
Don't store endspace and don't do end space compression for all values.
no endspace, no empty
Don't store endspace. Don't store empty values.
table-lookup
The column was converted to an ENUM.
zerofill(n)
The most significant n bytes in the value are always 0 and are not stored.
no zeros
Don't store zeros.
always zero
0 values are stored in 1 bit.
Huff tree
The Huffman tree associated with the field.
Bits
The number of bits used in the Huffman tree.

After you have run pack_isam/myisampack you must run isamchk/myisamchk to re-create the index. At this time you can also sort the index blocks and create statistics needed for the MySQL optimiser to work more efficiently:

myisamchk -rq --analyze --sort-index table_name.MYI
isamchk   -rq --analyze --sort-index table_name.ISM

After you have installed the packed table into the MySQL database directory you should do mysqladmin flush-tables to force mysqld to start using the new table.

If you want to unpack a packed table, you can do this with the --unpack option to isamchk or myisamchk.

4.7.5 mysqld-max, An Extended mysqld Server

mysqld-max is the MySQL server (mysqld) configured with the following configure options:

Option Comment
--with-server-suffix=-max Add a suffix to the mysqld version string.
--with-innodb Support for InnoDB tables.
--with-bdb Support for Berkeley DB (BDB) tables
CFLAGS=-DUSE_SYMDIR Symbolic links support for Windows.

You can find the MySQL-max binaries at http://www.mysql.com/downloads/mysql-max-3.23.html.

The Windows MySQL binary distributions includes both the standard mysqld.exe binary and the mysqld-max.exe binary. http://www.mysql.com/downloads/mysql-3.23.html. See section 2.1.2 Installing MySQL on Windows.

Note that as InnoDB and Berkeley DB are not available for all platforms, some of the Max binaries may not have support for both of these. You can check which table types are supported by doing the following query:

mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE "have_%";
+---------------+-------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+-------+
| have_bdb      | YES   |
| have_innodb   | NO    |
| have_isam     | YES   |
| have_raid     | NO    |
| have_openssl  | NO    |
+---------------+-------+

The meaning of the values are:

Value Meaning
YES The option is activated and usable.
NO MySQL is not compiled with support for this option.
DISABLED The xxxx option is disabled because one started mysqld with --skip-xxxx or because one didn't start mysqld with all needed options to enable the option. In this case the hostname.err file should contain a reason for why the option is disabled.

Note: To be able to create InnoDB tables you must edit your startup options to include at least the innodb_data_file_path option. See section 7.5.2 InnoDB Startup Options.

To get better performance for BDB tables, you should add some configuration options for these too. See section 7.6.3 BDB startup options.

safe_mysqld will automatically try to start any mysqld binary with the -max suffix. This makes it very easy to test out a another mysqld binary in an existing installation. Just run configure with the options you want and then install the new mysqld binary as mysqld-max in the same directory where your old mysqld binary is. See section 4.7.2 safe_mysqld, The Wrapper Around mysqld.

The mysqld-max RPM uses the above mentioned safe_mysqld feature. It just installs the mysqld-max executable and safe_mysqld will automatically use this executable when safe_mysqld is restarted.

The following table shows which table types our standard MySQL-Max binaries includes:

System BDB InnoDB
AIX 4.3 N Y
HP-UX 11.0 N Y
Linux-Alpha N Y
Linux-Intel Y Y
Linux-IA64 N Y
Solaris-Intel N Y
Solaris-SPARC Y Y
Caldera (SCO) OSR5 Y Y
UnixWare Y Y
Windows/NT Y Y

4.8 MySQL Client-Side Scripts and Utilities

4.8.1 Overview of the Client-Side Scripts and Utilities

All MySQL clients that communicate with the server using the mysqlclient library use the following environment variables:

Name Description
MYSQL_UNIX_PORT The default socket; used for connections to localhost
MYSQL_TCP_PORT The default TCP/IP port
MYSQL_PWD The default password
MYSQL_DEBUG Debug-trace options when debugging
TMPDIR The directory where temporary tables/files are created

Use of MYSQL_PWD is insecure. See section 4.2.8 Connecting to the MySQL Server.

The `mysql' client uses the file named in the MYSQL_HISTFILE environment variable to save the command-line history. The default value for the history file is `$HOME/.mysql_history', where $HOME is the value of the HOME environment variable. See section F Environment Variables.

All MySQL programs take many different options. However, every MySQL program provides a --help option that you can use to get a full description of the program's different options. For example, try mysql --help.

You can override default options for all standard client programs with an option file. section 4.1.2 `my.cnf' Option Files.

The following list briefly describes the client-side MySQL programs:

msql2mysql
A shell script that converts mSQL programs to MySQL. It doesn't handle all cases, but it gives a good start when converting.
mysqlaccess
A script that checks the access privileges for a host, user, and database combination.
mysqladmin
Utility for performing administrative operations, such as creating or dropping databases, reloading the grant tables, flushing tables to disk, and reopening log files. mysqladmin can also be used to retrieve version, process, and status information from the server. See section 4.8.3 mysqladmin, Administrating a MySQL Server.
mysqldump
Dumps a MySQL database into a file as SQL statements or as tab-separated text files. Enhanced freeware originally by Igor Romanenko. See section 4.8.5 mysqldump, Dumping Table Structure and Data.
mysqlimport
Imports text files into their respective tables using LOAD DATA INFILE. See section 4.8.7 mysqlimport, Importing Data from Text Files.
mysqlshow
Displays information about databases, tables, columns, and indexes.
replace
A utility program that is used by msql2mysql, but that has more general applicability as well. replace changes strings in place in files or on the standard input. Uses a finite state machine to match longer strings first. Can be used to swap strings. For example, this command swaps a and b in the given files:
shell> replace a b b a -- file1 file2 ...

4.8.2 mysql, The Command-line Tool

mysql is a simple SQL shell (with GNU readline capabilities). It supports interactive and non-interactive use. When used interactively, query results are presented in an ASCII-table format. When used non-interactively (for example, as a filter), the result is presented in tab-separated format. (The output format can be changed using command-line options.) You can run scripts simply like this:

shell> mysql database < script.sql > output.tab

If you have problems due to insufficient memory in the client, use the --quick option! This forces mysql to use mysql_use_result() rather than mysql_store_result() to retrieve the result set.

Using mysql is very easy. Just start it as follows: mysql database or mysql --user=user_name --password=your_password database. Type a SQL statement, end it with `;', `\g', or `\G' and press Enter.

mysql supports the following options:

-?, --help
Display this help and exit.
-A, --no-auto-rehash
No automatic rehashing. One has to use 'rehash' to get table and field completion. This gives a quicker start of mysql.
--prompt=...
Set the mysql prompt to specified format.
-b, --no-beep
Turn off beep-on-error.
-B, --batch
Print results with a tab as separator, each row on a new line. Doesn't use history file.
--character-sets-dir=...
Directory where character sets are located.
-C, --compress
Use compression in server/client protocol.
-#, --debug[=...]
Debug log. Default is 'd:t:o,/tmp/mysql.trace'.
-D, --database=...
Database to use. This is mainly useful in the `my.cnf' file.
--default-character-set=...
Set the default character set.
-e, --execute=...
Execute command and quit. (Output like with --batch)
-E, --vertical
Print the output of a query (rows) vertically. Without this option you can also force this output by ending your statements with \G.
-f, --force
Continue even if we get a SQL error.
-g, --no-named-commands
Named commands are disabled. Use \* form only, or use named commands only in the beginning of a line ending with a semicolon (`;'). Since Version 10.9, the client now starts with this option enabled by default! With the -g option, long format commands will still work from the first line, however.
-G, --enable-named-commands
Named commands are enabled. Long format commands are allowed as well as shortened \* commands.
-i, --ignore-space
Ignore space after function names.
-h, --host=...
Connect to the given host.
-H, --html
Produce HTML output.
-X, --xml
Produce XML output.
-L, --skip-line-numbers
Don't write line number for errors. Useful when one wants to compare result files that includes error messages
--no-pager
Disable pager and print to stdout. See interactive help (\h) also.
--no-tee
Disable outfile. See interactive help (\h) also.
-n, --unbuffered
Flush buffer after each query.
-N, --skip-column-names
Don't write column names in results.
-O, --set-variable var=option
Give a variable a value. --help lists variables. Please note that --set-variable is deprecated since MySQL 4.0, just use --var=option on its own.
-o, --one-database
Only update the default database. This is useful for skipping updates to other database in the update log.
--pager[=...]
Output type. Default is your ENV variable PAGER. Valid pagers are less, more, cat [> filename], etc. See interactive help (\h) also. This option does not work in batch mode. Pager works only in Unix.
-p[password], --password[=...]
Password to use when connecting to server. If a password is not given on the command-line, you will be prompted for it. Note that if you use the short form -p you can't have a space between the option and the password.
-P port_num, --port=port_num
TCP/IP port number to use for connection.
--protocol=(TCP | SOCKET | PIPE | MEMORY)
To specify the connect protocol to use. New in MySQL 4.1.
-q, --quick
Don't cache result, print it row-by-row. This may slow down the server if the output is suspended. Doesn't use history file.
-r, --raw
Write column values without escape conversion. Used with --batch
-s, --silent
Be more silent.
-S --socket=...
Socket file to use for connection.
-t --table
Output in table format. This is default in non-batch mode.
-T, --debug-info
Print some debug information at exit.
--tee=...
Append everything into outfile. See interactive help (\h) also. Does not work in batch mode.
-u, --user=#
User for login if not current user.
-U, --safe-updates[=#], --i-am-a-dummy[=#]
Only allow UPDATE and DELETE that uses keys. See below for more information about this option. You can reset this option if you have it in your `my.cnf' file by using --safe-updates=0.
-v, --verbose
More verbose output (-v -v -v gives the table output format).
-V, --version
Output version information and exit.
-w, --wait
Wait and retry if connection is down instead of aborting.

You can also set the following variables with -O or --set-variable; please note that --set-variable is deprecated since MySQL 4.0, just use --var=option on its own:

Variable Name Default Description
connect_timeout 0 Number of seconds before timeout connection.
max_allowed_packet 16777216 Max packetlength to send/receive from to server
net_buffer_length 16384 Buffer for TCP/IP and socket communication
select_limit 1000 Automatic limit for SELECT when using --i-am-a-dummy
max_join_size 1000000 Automatic limit for rows in a join when using --i-am-a-dummy.

If you type 'help' on the command-line, mysql will print out the commands that it supports:

mysql> help

MySQL commands:
help    (\h)    Display this text.
?       (\h)    Synonym for `help'.
clear   (\c)    Clear command.
connect (\r)    Reconnect to the server.
                Optional arguments are db and host.
edit    (\e)    Edit command with $EDITOR.
ego     (\G)    Send command to mysql server,
                display result vertically.
exit    (\q)    Exit mysql. Same as quit.
go      (\g)    Send command to mysql server.
nopager (\n)    Disable pager, print to stdout.
notee   (\t)    Don't write into outfile.
pager   (\P)    Set PAGER [to_pager].
                Print the query results via PAGER.
print   (\p)    Print current command.
prompt  (\R)    Change your mysql prompt.
quit    (\q)    Quit mysql.
rehash  (\#)    Rebuild completion hash.
source  (\.)    Execute a SQL script file.
                Takes a file name as an argument.
status  (\s)    Get status information from the server.
tee     (\T)    Set outfile [to_outfile].
                Append everything into given outfile.
use     (\u)    Use another database.
                Takes database name as argument.

The pager command works only in Unix.

The status command gives you some information about the connection and the server you are using. If you are running in the --safe-updates mode, status will also print the values for the mysql variables that affect your queries.

A useful startup option for beginners (introduced in MySQL Version 3.23.11) is --safe-updates (or --i-am-a-dummy for users that has at some time done a DELETE FROM table_name but forgot the WHERE clause). When using this option, mysql sends the following command to the MySQL server when opening the connection:

SET SQL_SAFE_UPDATES=1,SQL_SELECT_LIMIT=#select_limit#,
    SQL_MAX_JOIN_SIZE=#max_join_size#"

where #select_limit# and #max_join_size# are variables that can be set from the mysql command-line. See section 5.5.6 SET Syntax.

The effect of the above is:

Some useful hints about the mysql client:

Some data is much more readable when displayed vertically, instead of the usual horizontal box type output. For example longer text, which includes new lines, is often much easier to be read with vertical output.

mysql> SELECT * FROM mails WHERE LENGTH(txt) < 300 lIMIT 300,1\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
  msg_nro: 3068
     date: 2000-03-01 23:29:50
time_zone: +0200
mail_from: Monty
    reply: monty@no.spam.com
  mail_to: "Thimble Smith" <tim@no.spam.com>
      sbj: UTF-8
      txt: >>>>> "Thimble" == Thimble Smith writes:

Thimble> Hi.  I think this is a good idea.  Is anyone familiar with UTF-8
Thimble> or Unicode? Otherwise, I'll put this on my TODO list and see what
Thimble> happens.

Yes, please do that.

Regards,
Monty
     file: inbox-jani-1
     hash: 190402944
1 row in set (0.09 sec)

For logging, you can use the tee option. The tee can be started with option --tee=..., or from the command-line interactively with command tee. All the data displayed on the screen will also be appended into a given file. This can be very useful for debugging purposes also. The tee can be disabled from the command-line with command notee. Executing tee again starts logging again. Without a parameter the previous file will be used. Note that tee will flush the results into the file after each command, just before the command-line appears again waiting for the next command.

Browsing, or searching the results in the interactive mode in Unix less, more, or any other similar program, is now possible with option --pager[=...]. Without argument, mysql client will look for environment variable PAGER and set pager to that. pager can be started from the interactive command-line with command pager and disabled with command nopager. The command takes an argument optionally and the pager will be set to that. Command pager can be called without an argument, but this requires that the option --pager was used, or the pager will default to stdout. pager works only in Unix, since it uses the popen() function, which doesn't exist in Windows. In Windows, the tee option can be used instead, although it may not be as handy as pager can be in some situations.

A few tips about pager:

You can also combine the two functions above; have the tee enabled, pager set to 'less' and you will be able to browse the results in unix 'less' and still have everything appended into a file the same time. The difference between Unix tee used with the pager and the mysql client in-built tee, is that the in-built tee works even if you don't have the Unix tee available. The in-built tee also logs everything that is printed on the screen, where the Unix tee used with pager doesn't log quite that much. Last, but not least, the interactive tee is more handy to switch on and off, when you want to log something into a file, but want to be able to turn the feature off sometimes.

From MySQL version 4.0.2 it is possible to change the prompt in the mysql command-line client.

You can use the following prompt options:
Option Description
\v mysqld version
\d database in use
\h host connected to
\p port connected on
\u username
\U full username@host
\\ `\'
\n new line break
\t tab
\ space
\_ space
\R military hour time (0-23)
\r standard hour time (1-12)
\m minutes
\y two digit year
\Y four digit year
\D full date format
\s seconds
\w day of the week in three letter format (Mon, Tue, ...)
\P am/pm
\o month in number format
\O month in three letter format (Jan, Feb, ...)
\c counter that counts up for each command you do

`\' followed by any other letter just becomes that letter.

You may set the prompt in the following places:

Environment Variable
You may set the MYSQL_PS1 environment variable to a prompt string. For example:
shell> export MYSQL_PS1="(\u@\h) [\d]> "
`my.cnf'
`.my.cnf'
You may set the prompt option in any MySQL configuration file, in the mysql group. For example:
[mysql]
prompt=(\u@\h) [\d]>\_
Command Line
You may set the --prompt option on the command line to mysql. For example:
shell> mysql --prompt="(\u@\h) [\d]> "

(user@host) [database]> 
Interactively
You may also use the prompt (or \R) command to change your prompt interactively. For example:
mysql> prompt (\u@\h) [\d]>\_
PROMPT set to '(\u@\h) [\d]>\_'
(user@host) [database]> 
(user@host) [database]> prompt
Returning to default PROMPT of mysql> 
mysql> 

4.8.3 mysqladmin, Administrating a MySQL Server

A utility for performing administrative operations. The syntax is:

shell> mysqladmin [OPTIONS] command [command-option] command ...

You can get a list of the options your version of mysqladmin supports by executing mysqladmin --help.

The current mysqladmin supports the following commands:

create databasename
Create a new database.
drop databasename
Delete a database and all its tables.
extended-status
Gives an extended status message from the server.
flush-hosts
Flush all cached hosts.
flush-logs
Flush all logs.
flush-tables
Flush all tables.
flush-privileges
Reload grant tables (same as reload).
kill id,id,...
Kill mysql threads.
password
Set a new password. Change old password to new-password.
ping
Check if mysqld is alive.
processlist
Show list of active threads in server.
reload
Reload grant tables.
refresh
Flush all tables and close and open logfiles.
shutdown
Take server down.
slave-start
Start slave replication thread.
slave-stop
Stop slave replication thread.
status
Gives a short status message from the server.
variables
Prints variables available.
version
Get version info from server.

All commands can be shortened to their unique prefix. For example:

shell> mysqladmin proc stat
+----+-------+-----------+----+-------------+------+-------+------+
| Id | User  | Host      | db | Command     | Time | State | Info |
+----+-------+-----------+----+-------------+------+-------+------+
| 6  | monty | localhost |    | Processlist | 0    |       |      |
+----+-------+-----------+----+-------------+------+-------+------+
Uptime: 10077  Threads: 1  Questions: 9  Slow queries: 0
Opens: 6 Flush tables: 1  Open tables: 2
Memory in use: 1092K  Max memory used: 1116K

The mysqladmin status command result has the following columns:

Column Description
Uptime Number of seconds the MySQL server has been up.
Threads Number of active threads (clients).
Questions Number of questions from clients since mysqld was started.
Slow queries Queries that have taken more than long_query_time seconds. See section 4.9.5 The Slow Query Log.
Opens How many tables mysqld has opened.
Flush tables Number of flush ..., refresh, and reload commands.
Open tables Number of tables that are open now.
Memory in use Memory allocated directly by the mysqld code (only available when MySQL is compiled with --with-debug=full).
Max memory used Maximum memory allocated directly by the mysqld code (only available when MySQL is compiled with --with-debug=full).

If you do mysqladmin shutdown on a socket (in other words, on a the computer where mysqld is running), mysqladmin will wait until the MySQL pid-file is removed to ensure that the mysqld server has stopped properly.

4.8.4 Using mysqlcheck for Table Maintenance and Crash Recovery

Since MySQL version 3.23.38 you will be able to use a new checking and repairing tool for MyISAM tables. The difference to myisamchk is that mysqlcheck should be used when the mysqld server is running, where as myisamchk should be used when it is not. The benefit is that you no longer have to take the server down for checking or repairing your tables.

mysqlcheck uses MySQL server commands CHECK, REPAIR, ANALYZE and OPTIMIZE in a convenient way for the user.

There are three alternative ways to invoke mysqlcheck:

shell> mysqlcheck [OPTIONS] database [tables]
shell> mysqlcheck [OPTIONS] --databases DB1 [DB2 DB3...]
shell> mysqlcheck [OPTIONS] --all-databases

So it can be used in a similar way as mysqldump when it comes to what databases and tables you want to choose.

mysqlcheck does have a special feature compared to the other clients; the default behaviour, checking tables (-c), can be changed by renaming the binary. So if you want to have a tool that repairs tables by default, you should just copy mysqlcheck to your harddrive with a new name, mysqlrepair, or alternatively make a symbolic link to mysqlrepair and name the symbolic link as mysqlrepair. If you invoke mysqlrepair now, it will repair tables by default.

The names that you can use to change mysqlcheck default behaviour are here:

mysqlrepair:   The default option will be -r
mysqlanalyze:  The default option will be -a
mysqloptimize: The default option will be -o

The options available for mysqlcheck are listed here, please check what your version supports with mysqlcheck --help.

-A, --all-databases
Check all the databases. This will be same as --databases with all databases selected
-1, --all-in-1
Instead of making one query for each table, execute all queries in 1 query separately for each database. Table names will be in a comma separated list.
-a, --analyze
Analyse given tables.
--auto-repair
If a checked table is corrupted, automatically fix it. Repairing will be done after all tables have been checked, if corrupted ones were found.
-#, --debug=...
Output debug log. Often this is 'd:t:o,filename'
--character-sets-dir=...
Directory where character sets are
-c, --check
Check table for errors
-C, --check-only-changed
Check only tables that have changed since last check or haven't been closed properly.
--compress
Use compression in server/client protocol.
-?, --help
Display this help message and exit.
-B, --databases
To check several databases. Note the difference in usage; in this case no tables are given. All name arguments are regarded as database names.
--default-character-set=...
Set the default character set
-F, --fast
Check only tables that hasn't been closed properly
-f, --force
Continue even if we get an sql-error.
-e, --extended
If you are using this option with CHECK TABLE, it will ensure that the table is 100 percent consistent, but will take a long time. If you are using this option with REPAIR TABLE, it will run an extended repair on the table, which may not only take a long time to execute, but may produce a lot of garbage rows also!
-h, --host=...
Connect to host.
-m, --medium-check
Faster than extended-check, but only finds 99.99 percent of all errors. Should be good enough for most cases.
-o, --optimize
Optimise table
-p, --password[=...]
Password to use when connecting to server. If password is not given it's solicited on the tty.
-P, --port=...
Port number to use for TCP/IP connections.
--protocol=(TCP | SOCKET | PIPE | MEMORY)
To specify the connect protocol to use. New in MySQL 4.1.
-q, --quick
If you are using this option with CHECK TABLE, it prevents the check from scanning the rows to check for wrong links. This is the fastest check. If you are using this option with REPAIR TABLE, it will try to repair only the index tree. This is the fastest repair method for a table.
-r, --repair
Can fix almost anything except unique keys that aren't unique.
-s, --silent
Print only error messages.
-S, --socket=...
Socket file to use for connection.
--tables
Overrides option --databases (-B).
-u, --user=#
User for login if not current user.
-v, --verbose
Print info about the various stages.
-V, --version
Output version information and exit.

4.8.5 mysqldump, Dumping Table Structure and Data

Utility to dump a database or a collection of database for backup or for transferring the data to another SQL server (not necessarily a MySQL server). The dump will contain SQL statements to create the table and/or populate the table.

If you are doing a backup on the server, you should consider using the mysqlhotcopy instead. See section 4.8.6 mysqlhotcopy, Copying MySQL Databases and Tables.

shell> mysqldump [OPTIONS] database [tables]
OR     mysqldump [OPTIONS] --databases [OPTIONS] DB1 [DB2 DB3...]
OR     mysqldump [OPTIONS] --all-databases [OPTIONS]

If you don't give any tables or use the --databases or --all-databases, the whole database(s) will be dumped.

You can get a list of the options your version of mysqldump supports by executing mysqldump --help.

Note that if you run mysqldump without --quick or --opt, mysqldump will load the whole result set into memory before dumping the result. This will probably be a problem if you are dumping a big database.

Note that if you are using a new copy of the mysqldump program and you are going to do a dump that will be read into a very old MySQL server, you should not use the --opt or -e options.

mysqldump supports the following options:

--add-locks
Add LOCK TABLES before and UNLOCK TABLE after each table dump. (To get faster inserts into MySQL.)
--add-drop-table
Add a drop table before each create statement.
-A, --all-databases
Dump all the databases. This will be same as --databases with all databases selected.
-a, --all
Include all MySQL-specific create options.
--allow-keywords
Allow creation of column names that are keywords. This works by prefixing each column name with the table name.
-c, --complete-insert
Use complete insert statements (with column names).
-C, --compress
Compress all information between the client and the server if both support compression.
-B, --databases
To dump several databases. Note the difference in usage. In this case no tables are given. All name arguments are regarded as database names. USE db_name; will be included in the output before each new database.
--delayed
Insert rows with the INSERT DELAYED command.
-e, --extended-insert
Use the new multiline INSERT syntax. (Gives more compact and faster inserts statements.)
-#, --debug[=option_string]
Trace usage of the program (for debugging).
--help
Display a help message and exit.
--fields-terminated-by=...
--fields-enclosed-by=...
--fields-optionally-enclosed-by=...
--fields-escaped-by=...
--lines-terminated-by=...
These options are used with the -T option and have the same meaning as the corresponding clauses for LOAD DATA INFILE. See section 6.4.9 LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax.
-F, --flush-logs
Flush log file in the MySQL server before starting the dump.
-f, --force,
Continue even if we get a SQL error during a table dump.
-h, --host=..
Dump data from the MySQL server on the named host. The default host is localhost.
-l, --lock-tables.
Lock all tables before starting the dump. The tables are locked with READ LOCAL to allow concurrent inserts in the case of MyISAM tables. Please note that when dumping multiple databases, --lock-tables will lock tables for each database separately. So using this option will not guarantee your tables will be logically consistent between databases. Tables in different databases may be dumped in completely different states.
-K, --disable-keys
/*!40000 ALTER TABLE tb_name DISABLE KEYS */; and /*!40000 ALTER TABLE tb_name ENABLE KEYS */; will be put in the output. This will make loading the data into a MySQL 4.0 server faster as the indexes are created after all data are inserted.
-n, --no-create-db
CREATE DATABASE /*!32312 IF NOT EXISTS*/ db_name; will not be put in the output. The above line will be added otherwise, if a --databases or --all-databases option was given.
-t, --no-create-info
Don't write table creation information (the CREATE TABLE statement).
-d, --no-data
Don't write any row information for the table. This is very useful if you just want to get a dump of the structure for a table!
--opt
Same as --quick --add-drop-table --add-locks --extended-insert --lock-tables. Should give you the fastest possible dump for reading into a MySQL server.
-pyour_pass, --password[=your_pass]
The password to use when connecting to the server. If you specify no `=your_pass' part, mysqldump you will be prompted for a password.
-P, --port=...
Port number to use for TCP/IP connections.
--protocol=(TCP | SOCKET | PIPE | MEMORY)
To specify the connect protocol to use. New in MySQL 4.1.
-q, --quick
Don't buffer query, dump directly to stdout. Uses mysql_use_result() to do this.
-Q, --quote-names
Quote table and column names within ``' characters.
-r, --result-file=...
Direct output to a given file. This option should be used in MSDOS, because it prevents new line `\n' from being converted to `\n\r' (new line + carriage return).
--single-transaction
This option issues a BEGIN SQL command before dumping data from server. It is mostly useful with InnoDB tables and READ_COMMITTED transaction isolation level, as in this mode it will dump the consistent state of the database at the time then BEGIN was issued without blocking any applications. When using this option you should keep in mind that only transactional tables will be dumped in a consistent state, e.g., any MyISAM or HEAP tables dumped while using this option may still change state. The --single-transaction option was added in version 4.0.2. This option is mutually exclusive with the --lock-tables option as LOCK TABLES already commits a previous transaction internally.
-S /path/to/socket, --socket=/path/to/socket
The socket file to use when connecting to localhost (which is the default host).
--tables
Overrides option --databases (-B).
-T, --tab=path-to-some-directory
Creates a table_name.sql file, that contains the SQL CREATE commands, and a table_name.txt file, that contains the data, for each give table. The format of the `.txt' file is made according to the --fields-xxx and --lines--xxx options. Note: This option only works if mysqldump is run on the same machine as the mysqld daemon, and the user/group that mysqld is running as (normally user mysql, group mysql) needs to have permission to create/write a file at the location you specify.
-u user_name, --user=user_name
The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server. The default value is your Unix login name.
-O var=option, --set-variable var=option
Set the value of a variable. The possible variables are listed below. Please note that --set-variable is deprecated since MySQL 4.0, just use --var=option on its own.
-v, --verbose
Verbose mode. Print out more information on what the program does.
-V, --version
Print version information and exit.
-w, --where='where-condition'
Dump only selected records. Note that quotes are mandatory:
-X, --xml
Dumps a database as well formed XML
-x, --first-slave
Locks all tables across all databases.
"--where=user='jimf'" "-wuserid>1" "-wuserid<1"
-O net_buffer_length=#, where # < 16M
When creating multi-row-insert statements (as with option --extended-insert or --opt), mysqldump will create rows up to net_buffer_length length. If you increase this variable, you should also ensure that the max_allowed_packet variable in the MySQL server is bigger than the net_buffer_length.

The most normal use of mysqldump is probably for making a backup of whole databases. See section 4.4.1 Database Backups.

mysqldump --opt database > backup-file.sql

You can read this back into MySQL with:

mysql database < backup-file.sql

or

mysql -e "source /patch-to-backup/backup-file.sql" database

However, it's also very useful to populate another MySQL server with information from a database:

mysqldump --opt database | mysql --host=remote-host -C database

It is possible to dump several databases with one command:

mysqldump --databases database1 [database2 ...] > my_databases.sql

If all the databases are wanted, one can use:

mysqldump --all-databases > all_databases.sql

4.8.6 mysqlhotcopy, Copying MySQL Databases and Tables

mysqlhotcopy is a Perl script that uses LOCK TABLES, FLUSH TABLES and cp or scp to quickly make a backup of a database. It's the fastest way to make a backup of the database or single tables, but it can only be run on the same machine where the database directories are.

mysqlhotcopy db_name [/path/to/new_directory]

mysqlhotcopy db_name_1 ... db_name_n /path/to/new_directory

mysqlhotcopy db_name./regex/

mysqlhotcopy supports the following options:

-?, --help
Display a help screen and exit
-u, --user=#
User for database login
-p, --password=#
Password to use when connecting to server
-P, --port=#
Port to use when connecting to local server
-S, --socket=#
Socket to use when connecting to local server
--allowold
Don't abort if target already exists (rename it _old)
--keepold
Don't delete previous (now renamed) target when done
--noindices
Don't include full index files in copy to make the backup smaller and faster The indexes can later be reconstructed with myisamchk -rq..
--method=#
Method for copy (cp or scp).
-q, --quiet
Be silent except for errors
--debug
Enable debug
-n, --dryrun
Report actions without doing them
--regexp=#
Copy all databases with names matching regexp
--suffix=#
Suffix for names of copied databases
--checkpoint=#
Insert checkpoint entry into specified db.table
--flushlog
Flush logs once all tables are locked.
--tmpdir=#
Temporary directory (instead of /tmp).

You can use perldoc mysqlhotcopy to get more complete documentation for mysqlhotcopy.

mysqlhotcopy reads the groups [client] and [mysqlhotcopy] from the option files.

To be able to execute mysqlhotcopy you need write access to the backup directory, the SELECT privilege for the tables you are about to copy and the MySQL RELOAD privilege (to be able to execute FLUSH TABLES).

4.8.7 mysqlimport, Importing Data from Text Files

mysqlimport provides a command-line interface to the LOAD DATA INFILE SQL statement. Most options to mysqlimport correspond directly to the same options to LOAD DATA INFILE. See section 6.4.9 LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax.

mysqlimport is invoked like this:

shell> mysqlimport [options] database textfile1 [textfile2 ...]

For each text file named on the command-line, mysqlimport strips any extension from the filename and uses the result to determine which table to import the file's contents into. For example, files named `patient.txt', `patient.text', and `patient' would all be imported into a table named patient.

mysqlimport supports the following options:

-c, --columns=...
This option takes a comma-separated list of field names as an argument. The field list is used to create a proper LOAD DATA INFILE command, which is then passed to MySQL. See section 6.4.9 LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax.
-C, --compress
Compress all information between the client and the server if both support compression.
-#, --debug[=option_string]
Trace usage of the program (for debugging).
-d, --delete
Empty the table before importing the text file.
--fields-terminated-by=...
--fields-enclosed-by=...
--fields-optionally-enclosed-by=...
--fields-escaped-by=...
--lines-terminated-by=...
These options have the same meaning as the corresponding clauses for LOAD DATA INFILE. See section 6.4.9 LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax.
-f, --force
Ignore errors. For example, if a table for a text file doesn't exist, continue processing any remaining files. Without --force, mysqlimport exits if a table doesn't exist.
--help
Display a help message and exit.
-h host_name, --host=host_name
Import data to the MySQL server on the named host. The default host is localhost.
-i, --ignore
See the description for the --replace option.
-l, --lock-tables
Lock all tables for writing before processing any text files. This ensures that all tables are synchronised on the server.
-L, --local
Read input files from the client. By default, text files are assumed to be on the server if you connect to localhost (which is the default host).
-pyour_pass, --password[=your_pass]
The password to use when connecting to the server. If you specify no `=your_pass' part, mysqlimport you will be prompted for a password.
-P port_num, --port=port_num
TCP/IP port number to use for connection.
--protocol=(TCP | SOCKET | PIPE | MEMORY)
To specify the connect protocol to use. New in MySQL 4.1.
-r, --replace
The --replace and --ignore options control handling of input records that duplicate existing records on unique key values. If you specify --replace, new rows replace existing rows that have the same unique key value. If you specify --ignore, input rows that duplicate an existing row on a unique key value are skipped. If you don't specify either option, an error occurs when a duplicate key value is found, and the rest of the text file is ignored.
-s, --silent
Silent mode. Write output only when errors occur.
-S /path/to/socket, --socket=/path/to/socket
The socket file to use when connecting to localhost (which is the default host).
-u user_name, --user=user_name
The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server. The default value is your Unix login name.
-v, --verbose
Verbose mode. Print out more information what the program does.
-V, --version
Print version information and exit.

Here is a sample run using mysqlimport:

$ mysql --version
mysql  Ver 9.33 Distrib 3.22.25, for pc-linux-gnu (i686)
$ uname -a
Linux xxx.com 2.2.5-15 #1 Mon Apr 19 22:21:09 EDT 1999 i586 unknown
$ mysql -e 'CREATE TABLE imptest(id INT, n VARCHAR(30))' test
$ ed
a
100     Max Sydow
101     Count Dracula
.
w imptest.txt
32
q
$ od -c imptest.txt
0000000   1   0   0  \t   M   a   x       S   y   d   o   w  \n   1   0
0000020   1  \t   C   o   u   n   t       D   r   a   c   u   l   a  \n
0000040
$ mysqlimport --local test imptest.txt
test.imptest: Records: 2  Deleted: 0  Skipped: 0  Warnings: 0
$ mysql -e 'SELECT * FROM imptest' test
+------+---------------+
| id   | n             |
+------+---------------+
|  100 | Max Sydow     |
|  101 | Count Dracula |
+------+---------------+

4.8.8 mysqlshow, Showing Databases, Tables, and Columns

mysqlshow can be used to quickly look at which databases exist, their tables, and the table's columns.

With the mysql program you can get the same information with the SHOW commands. See section 4.5.6 SHOW Syntax.

mysqlshow is invoked like this:

shell> mysqlshow [OPTIONS] [database [table [column]]]

Note that in newer MySQL versions, you only see those database/tables/columns for which you have some privileges.

If the last argument contains a shell or SQL wildcard (*, ?, % or _) then only what's matched by the wildcard is shown. If a database contains underscore(s), those should be escaped with backslash (some Unix shells will require two), in order to get tables / columns properly. '*' are converted into SQL '%' wildcard and '?' into SQL '_' wildcard. This may cause some confusion when you try to display the columns for a table with a _ as in this case mysqlshow only shows you the table names that match the pattern. This is easily fixed by adding an extra % last on the command-line (as a separate argument).

4.8.9 mysql_config, Get compile options for compiling clients

mysql_config provides you with useful information how to compile your MySQL client and connect it to MySQL.

mysql_config supports the following options:

--cflags
Compiler flags to find include files
--libs
Libs and options required to link with the MySQL client library.
--socket
The default socket name, defined when configuring MySQL.
--port
The default port number, defined when configuring MySQL.
--version
Version number and version for the MySQL distribution
--libmysqld-libs
Libs and options required to link with the MySQL embedded server.

If you execute mysql_config without any options it will print all options it supports plus the value of all options:

shell> mysql_config
sage: /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_config [OPTIONS]
Options:
        --cflags         [-I'/usr/local/mysql/include/mysql']
        --libs           [-L'/usr/local/mysql/lib/mysql' -lmysqlclient -lz -lcrypt -lnsl -lm -L/usr/lib -lssl -lcrypto]
        --socket         [/tmp/mysql.sock]
        --port           [3306]
        --version        [4.0.8-gamma]
        --libmysqld-libs [ -L'/usr/local/mysql/lib/mysql' -lmysqld -lpthread -lz -lcrypt -lnsl -lm  -lpthread  -lrt]

You can use this to compile a MySQL client by as follows:

CFG=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_config
sh -c "gcc -o progname `$CFG --cflags` progname.c `$CFG --libs`"

4.8.10 perror, Explaining Error Codes

For most system errors MySQL will, in addition to a internal text message, also print the system error code in one of the following styles: message ... (errno: #) or message ... (Errcode: #).

You can find out what the error code means by either examining the documentation for your system or use the perror utility.

perror prints a description for a system error code, or an MyISAM/ISAM storage engine (table handler) error code.

perror is invoked like this:

shell> perror [OPTIONS] [ERRORCODE [ERRORCODE...]]

Example:

shell> perror 13 64
Error code  13:  Permission denied
Error code  64:  Machine is not on the network

Note that the error messages are mostly system dependent!

4.8.11 How to Run SQL Commands from a Text File

The mysql client typically is used interactively, like this:

shell> mysql database

However, it's also possible to put your SQL commands in a file and tell mysql to read its input from that file. To do so, create a text file `text_file' that contains the commands you wish to execute. Then invoke mysql as shown here:

shell> mysql database < text_file

You can also start your text file with a USE db_name statement. In this case, it is unnecessary to specify the database name on the command line:

shell> mysql < text_file

If you are already running mysql, you can execute a SQL script file using the source command:

mysql> source filename;

For more information about batch mode, section 3.6 Using mysql in Batch Mode.

4.9 The MySQL Log Files

MySQL has several different log files that can help you find out what's going on inside mysqld:

Log file Description
The error log Problems encountering starting, running or stopping mysqld.
The isam log Logs all changes to the ISAM tables. Used only for debugging the isam code.
The query log Established connections and executed queries.
The update log Deprecated: Stores all statements that changes data
The binary log Stores all statements that changes something. Used also for replication
The slow log Stores all queries that took more than long_query_time to execute or didn't use indexes.

All logs can be found in the mysqld data directory. You can force mysqld to reopen the log files (or in some cases switch to a new log) by executing FLUSH LOGS. See section 4.5.3 FLUSH Syntax.

4.9.1 The Error Log

The error log file contains information indicating when mysqld was started and stopped and also any critical errors found when running.

If mysqld dies unexpectedly and mysqld_safe needs to restart mysqld, mysqld_safe will write a restarted mysqld row in this file. This log also holds a warning if mysqld notices a table that needs to be automatically checked or repaired.

On some operating systems, the error log will contain a stack trace for where mysqld died. This can be used to find out where mysqld died. See section E.1.4 Using a Stack Trace.

Beginning with MySQL 4.0.10 you can specify where mysqld stores the error log file with the option --log-error[=filename]. If no file name is given mysqld will use mysql-data-dir/'hostname'.err on Unix and `\mysql\data\mysql.err' on windows. If you execute flush logs the old file will be prefixed with --old and mysqld will create a new empty log file.

In older MySQL versions the error log handling was done by mysqld_safe which redirected the error file to 'hostname'.err. One could change this file name with the option --err-log=filename.

If you don't specify --log-error or if you use the --console option the errors will be written to stderr (the terminal).

On windows the output is always done to the .err file if --console is not given.

4.9.2 The General Query Log

If you want to know what happens within mysqld, you should start it with --log[=file]. This will log all connections and queries to the log file (by default named `'hostname'.log'). This log can be very useful when you suspect an error in a client and want to know exactly what mysqld thought the client sent to it.

Older versions of the mysql.server script (from MySQL 3.23.4 to 3.23.8) pass safe_mysqld a --log option (enable general query log). If you need better performance when you start using MySQL in a production environment, you can remove the --log option from mysql.server or change it to --log-bin. See section 4.9.4 The Binary Update Log.

The entries in this log are written as mysqld receives the questions. This may be different from the order in which the statements are executed. This is in contrast to the update log and the binary log which are written after the query is executed, but before any locks are released.

4.9.3 The Update Log

Note: the update log is replaced by the binary log. See section 4.9.4 The Binary Update Log. With this you can do anything that you can do with the update log.

When started with the --log-update[=file_name] option, mysqld writes a log file containing all SQL commands that update data. If no filename is given, it defaults to the name of the host machine. If a filename is given, but it doesn't contain a path, the file is written in the data directory. If `file_name' doesn't have an extension, mysqld will create log file names like so: `file_name.###', where ### is a number that is incremented each time you execute mysqladmin refresh, execute mysqladmin flush-logs, execute the FLUSH LOGS statement, or restart the server.

Note: for the above scheme to work, you must not create your own files with the same filename as the update log + some extensions that may be regarded as a number, in the directory used by the update log!

If you use the --log or -l options, mysqld writes a general log with a filename of `hostname.log', and restarts and refreshes do not cause a new log file to be generated (although it is closed and reopened). In this case you can copy it (on Unix) by doing:

mv hostname.log hostname-old.log
mysqladmin flush-logs
cp hostname-old.log to-backup-directory
rm hostname-old.log

Update logging is smart because it logs only statements that really update data. So an UPDATE or a DELETE with a WHERE that finds no rows is not written to the log. It even skips UPDATE statements that set a column to the value it already has.

The update logging is done immediately after a query completes but before any locks are released or any commit is done. This ensures that the log will be logged in the execution order.

If you want to update a database from update log files, you could do the following (assuming your update logs have names of the form `file_name.###'):

shell> ls -1 -t -r file_name.[0-9]* | xargs cat | mysql

ls is used to get all the log files in the right order.

This can be useful if you have to revert to backup files after a crash and you want to redo the updates that occurred between the time of the backup and the crash.

4.9.4 The Binary Update Log

The intention is that the binary log should replace the update log, so we recommend you to switch to this log format as soon as possible!

The binary log contains all information that is available in the update log in a more efficient format. It also contains information about how long each query took that updated the database. It doesn't contain queries that don't modify any data. If you want to log all queries (for example to find a problem query) you should use the general query log. See section 4.9.2 The General Query Log.

The binary log is also used when you are replicating a slave from a master. See section 4.10 Replication in MySQL.

When started with the --log-bin[=file_name] option, mysqld writes a log file containing all SQL commands that update data. If no file name is given, it defaults to the name of the host machine followed by -bin. If file name is given, but it doesn't contain a path, the file is written in the data directory.

If you supply an extension to --log-bin=filename.extension, the extension will be silenty removed.

To the binary log filename mysqld will append an extension that is a number that is incremented each time you execute mysqladmin refresh, execute mysqladmin flush-logs, execute the FLUSH LOGS statement or restart the server. A new binary log will also automatically be created when it reaches max_binlog_size. You can delete all not active binary log files with the RESET MASTER command. See section 4.5.4 RESET Syntax.

You can use the following options to mysqld to affect what is logged to the binary log:

Option Description
binlog-do-db=database_name Tells the master that it should log updates to the binary log if the current (i.e. selected) database is 'database_name'. All others databases which are not explicitly mentioned are ignored. Note that if you use this you should ensure that you only do updates in the current database. (Example: binlog-do-db=some_database)
binlog-ignore-db=database_name Tells the master that updates where the current (i.e. selected) database is 'database_name' should not be stored in the binary log. Note that if you use this you should ensure that you only do updates in the current database. (Example: binlog-ignore-db=some_database)

To be able to know which different binary log files have been used, mysqld will also create a binary log index file that contains the name of all used binary log files. By default this has the same name as the binary log file, with the extension '.index'. You can change the name of the binary log index file with the --log-bin-index=[filename] option.

If you are using replication, you should not delete old binary log files until you are sure that no slave will ever need to use them. One way to do this is to do mysqladmin flush-logs once a day and then remove any logs that are more than 3 days old.

You can examine the binary log file with the mysqlbinlog command. For example, you can update a MySQL server from the binary log as follows:

shell> mysqlbinlog log-file | mysql -h server_name

You can also use the mysqlbinlog program to read the binary log directly from a remote MySQL server!

mysqlbinlog --help will give you more information of how to use this program!

If you are using BEGIN [WORK] or SET AUTOCOMMIT=0, you must use the MySQL binary log for backups instead of the old update log.

The binary logging is done immediately after a query completes but before any locks are released or any commit is done. This ensures that the log will be logged in the execution order.

Updates to non-transactional tables are stored in the binary log immediately after execution. For transactional tables such as BDB or InnoDB tables, all updates (UPDATE, DELETE or INSERT) that change tables are cached until a COMMIT command is sent to the server. At this point mysqld writes the whole transaction to the binary log before the COMMIT is executed. Every thread will, on start, allocate a buffer of binlog_cache_size to buffer queries. If a query is bigger than this, the thread will open a temporary file to store the transaction. The temporary file will be deleted when the thread ends.

The max_binlog_cache_size (default 4G) can be used to restrict the total size used to cache a multi-query transaction. If a transaction is bigger than this it will fail and roll back.

If you are using the update or binary log, concurrent inserts will be converted to normal inserts when using CREATE ... SELECT or INSERT ... SELECT. This is to ensure that you can recreate an exact copy of your tables by applying the log on a backup.

4.9.5 The Slow Query Log

When started with the --log-slow-queries[=file_name] option, mysqld writes a log file containing all SQL commands that took more than long_query_time to execute. The time to get the initial table locks are not counted as execution time.

The slow query log is logged after the query is executed and after all locks has been released. This may be different from the order in which the statements are executed.

If no file name is given, it defaults to the name of the host machine suffixed with -slow.log. If a filename is given, but doesn't contain a path, the file is written in the data directory.

The slow query log can be used to find queries that take a long time to execute and are thus candidates for optimisation. With a large log, that can become a difficult task. You can pipe the slow query log through the mysqldumpslow command to get a summary of the queries which appear in the log.

You are using --log-long-format then also queries that are not using indexes are printed. See section 4.1.1 mysqld Command-line Options.

4.9.6 Log File Maintenance

The MySQL Server can create a number of different log files, which make it easy to see what is going on. See section 4.9 The MySQL Log Files. One must however regularly clean up these files, to ensure that the logs don't take up too much disk space.

When using MySQL with log files, you will, from time to time, want to remove/backup old log files and tell MySQL to start logging on new files. See section 4.4.1 Database Backups.

On a Linux (Red Hat) installation, you can use the mysql-log-rotate script for this. If you installed MySQL from an RPM distribution, the script should have been installed automatically. Note that you should be careful with this if you are using the log for replication!

On other systems you must install a short script yourself that you start from cron to handle log files.

You can force MySQL to start using new log files by using mysqladmin flush-logs or by using the SQL command FLUSH LOGS. If you are using MySQL Version 3.21 you must use mysqladmin refresh.

The above command does the following:

If you are using only an update log, you only have to flush the logs and then move away the old update log files to a backup. If you are using the normal logging, you can do something like:

shell> cd mysql-data-directory
shell> mv mysql.log mysql.old
shell> mysqladmin flush-logs

and then take a backup and remove `mysql.old'.

4.10 Replication in MySQL

This section describes the various replication features in MySQL. It serves as a reference to the options available with replication. You will be introduced to replication and learn how to implement it. Toward the end, there are some frequently asked questions and descriptions of problems and how to solve them.

We suggest that you visit our website at http://www.mysql.com/ often and read updates to this section. Replication is constantly being improved, and we update the manual frequently with the most current information.

4.10.1 Introduction

One way replication can be used is to increase both robustness and speed. For robustness you can have two systems and can switch to the backup if you have problems with the master. The extra speed is achieved by sending a part of the non-updating queries to the replica server. Of course this only works if non-updating queries dominate, but that is the normal case.

Starting in Version 3.23.15, MySQL supports one-way replication internally. One server acts as the master, while the other acts as the slave. Note that one server could play the roles of master in one pair and slave in the other. The master server keeps a binary log of updates (see section 4.9.4 The Binary Update Log) and an index file to binary logs to keep track of log rotation. The slave, upon connecting, informs the master where it left off since the last successfully propagated update, catches up on the updates, and then blocks and waits for the master to notify it of the new updates.

Note that if you are replicating a database, all updates to this database should be done through the master!

Another benefit of using replication is that one can get live backups of the system by doing a backup on a slave instead of doing it on the master. See section 4.4.1 Database Backups.

4.10.2 Replication Implementation Overview

MySQL replication is based on the server keeping track of all changes to your database (updates, deletes, etc) in the binary log (see section 4.9.4 The Binary Update Log) and the slave server(s) reading the saved queries from the master server's binary log so that the slave can execute the same queries on its copy of the data.

It is very important to realise that the binary log is simply a record starting from a fixed point in time (the moment you enable binary logging). Any slaves which you set up will need copies of all the data from your master as it existed the moment that you enabled binary logging on the master. If you start your slaves with data that doesn't agree with what was on the master when the binary log was started, your slaves may fail.

Please see the following table for an indication of master-slave compatibility between different versions. With regard to version 4.0, we recommend using same version on both sides.

Master Master Master Master
3.23.33 and up 4.0.0 4.0.1 4.0.3 and up
Slave 3.23.33 and up yes no no no
Slave 4.0.0 no yes no no
Slave 4.0.1 yes no yes no
Slave 4.0.3 and up yes no no yes

Note: MySQL Version 4.0.2 is not recommended for replication.

Starting from 4.0.0, one can use LOAD DATA FROM MASTER to set up a slave. Be aware that LOAD DATA FROM MASTER currently works only if all the tables on the master are MyISAM type, and will acquire a global read lock, so no writes are possible while the tables are being transferred from the master. This limitation is of a temporary nature, and is due to the fact that we have not yet implemented hot lock-free table backup. It will be removed in the future 4.0 branch versions once we implement hot backup enabling LOAD DATA FROM MASTER to work without blocking master updates.

Due to the above limitation, we recommend that at this point you use LOAD DATA FROM MASTER only if the dataset on the master is relatively small, or if a prolonged read lock on the master is acceptable. While the actual speed of LOAD DATA FROM MASTER may vary from system to system, a good rule for a rough estimate of how long it is going to take is 1 second per 1 MB of the datafile. You will get close to the estimate if both master and slave are equivalent to 700 MHz Pentium, are connected through 100 MBit/s network, and your index file is about half the size of your data file. Of course, your mileage will vary from system to system, the above rule just gives you a rough order of magnitude estimate.

Once a slave is properly configured and running, it will simply connect to the master and wait for updates to process. If the master goes away or the slave loses connectivity with your master, it will keep trying to connect every master-connect-retry seconds until it is able to reconnect and resume listening for updates.

Each slave keeps track of where it left off. The master server has no knowledge of how many slaves there are or which ones are up-to-date at any given time.

The next section explains the master/slave setup process in more detail.

4.10.3 How To Set Up Replication

Here is a quick description of how to set up complete replication on your current MySQL server. It assumes you want to replicate all your databases and have not configured replication before. You will need to shutdown your master server briefly to complete the steps outlined here.

While this method is the most straightforward way to set up a slave, it is not the only one. For example, if you already have a snapshot of the master, and the master already has server id set and binary logging enabled, you can set up a slave without shutting the master down or even blocking the updates. For more details, please see section 4.10.7 Replication FAQ.

If you want to become a real MySQL replication guru, we suggest that you begin by studying, pondering, and trying all commands mentioned in section 4.10.6 SQL Commands Related to Replication. You should also familiarise yourself with replication startup options in `my.cnf' in section 4.10.5 Replication Options in `my.cnf'.

  1. Make sure you have a recent version of MySQL installed on the master and slave(s). Use Version 3.23.29 or higher. Previous releases used a different binary log format and had bugs which have been fixed in newer releases. Please, do not report bugs until you have verified that the problem is present in the latest release.
  2. Set up special a replication user on the master with the FILE (in MySQL versions older than 4.0.2) or REPLICATION SLAVE privilege in newer MySQL versions. You must also have given permission to connect from all the slaves. If the user is only doing replication (which is recommended), you don't need to grant any additional privileges. For example, to create a user named repl which can access your master from any host, you might use this command:
    mysql> GRANT FILE ON *.* TO repl@"%" IDENTIFIED BY '<password>'; # master < 4.0.2
    
    mysql> GRANT REPLICATION SLAVE ON *.* TO repl@"%" IDENTIFIED BY '<password>'; # master >= 4.0.2
    
    If you plan to use the LOAD TABLE FROM MASTER or LOAD DATA FROM MASTER commands (available starting from version 4.0.0), you will also need to grant the RELOAD and SUPER privileges on the master to the above user.
  3. If you are using MyISAM tables, flush all the tables and block write queries by executing FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK command.
    mysql> FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK;
    
    and then take a snapshot of the data on your master server. The easiest way to do this (on Unix) is to simply use tar to produce an archive of your entire data directory. The exact data directory location depends on your installation.
    tar -cvf /tmp/mysql-snapshot.tar /path/to/data-dir
    
    Windows users can use WinZIP or similar software to create an archive of the data directory. After or during the process of taking a snapshot, read the value of the current binary log name and the offset on the master:
    mysql > SHOW MASTER STATUS;
    +---------------+----------+--------------+-------------------------------+
    | File          | Position | Binlog_do_db | Binlog_ignore_db              |
    +---------------+----------+--------------+-------------------------------+
    | mysql-bin.003 | 73       | test,bar     | foo,manual,sasha_likes_to_run |
    +---------------+----------+--------------+-------------------------------+
    1 row in set (0.06 sec)
    
    The File column shows the name of the log, while Position shows the offset. In the above example, the binary log value is mysql-bin.003 and the offset is 73. Record the values - you will need to use them later when you are setting up the slave. Once you have taken the snapshot and recorded the log name and offset, you can re-enable write activity on the master:
    mysql> UNLOCK TABLES;
    
    If you are using InnoDB tables, ideally you should use the InnoDB Hot Backup tool that is available to those who purchase MySQL commercial licenses, support, or the backup tool itself. It will take a consistent snapshot without acquiring any locks on the master server, and record the log name and offset corresponding to the snapshot to be later used on the slave. More information about the tool is avaliable at http://www.innodb.com/hotbackup.html. Without the hot backup tool, the quickest way to take a snapshot of InnoDB tables is to shut the master server down and copy the data files, the logs, and the table definition files (.frm). To record the current log file name and offset, you should do the following before you shut down the server:
    mysql> FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK;
    mysql> SHOW MASTER STATUS;
    
    And then record the log name and the offset from the output of SHOW MASTER STATUS as was shown earlier. Once you have recorded the log name and the offset, shut the server down without unlocking the tables to make sure it goes down with the snapshot corresponding to the current log file and offset:
    shell> mysqladmin -uroot shutdown
    
    If the master has been previously running without log-bin enabled, the values of log name and position will be empty when you run SHOW MASTER STATUS. In that case, record empty string ('') for the log name, and 4 for the offset.
  4. Make sure that `my.cnf' on the master has log-bin if it is not there already and server-id=unique number in the [mysqld] section. If those options are not present, add them and restart the server. It is very important that the id of the slave is different from the id of the master. Think of server-id as something similar to the IP address - it uniquely identifies the server instance in the community of replication partners.
    [mysqld]
    log-bin
    server-id=1
    
  5. Add the following to `my.cnf' on the slave(s):
    server-id=<some unique number between 1 and 2^32-1 that is different from
     that of the master>
    
    replacing the values in <> with what is relevant to your system. server-id must be different for each server participating in replication. If you don't specify a server-id, it will be set to 1 if you have not defined master-host, else it will be set to 2. Note that in the case of server-id omission the master will refuse connections from all slaves, and the slave will refuse to connect to a master. Thus, omitting server-id is only good for backup with a binary log.
  6. While the slave is running, make it forget about the old replication configuration if it has been replicating previously:
    mysql> RESET SLAVE;
    
  7. Copy the snapshot data into your data directory on your slave(s). Make sure that the privileges on the files and directories are correct. The user which MySQL runs as needs to be able to read and write to them, just as on the master.
  8. Restart the slave(s).
  9. Once the slave comes up, execute the following command:
    mysql> CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_HOST='<master host name>',
     MASTER_USER='<replication user name>',
     MASTER_PASSWORD='<replication password>',
     MASTER_LOG_FILE='<recorded log file name>',
     MASTER_LOG_POS=<recorded log offset>;
    
    replacing the values in <> with the actual values relevant to your system.
  10. Start the slave thread:
    mysql> SLAVE START;
    

After you have done the above, the slave(s) should connect to the master and catch up on any updates which happened since the snapshot was taken.

If you have forgotten to set server-id for the slave you will get the following error in the error log file:

Warning: one should set server_id to a non-0 value if master_host is set.
The server will not act as a slave.

If you have forgotten to do this for the master, the slaves will not be able to connect to the master.

If a slave is not able to replicate for any reason, you will find error messages in the error log on the slave.

Once a slave is replicating, you will find a file called `master.info' in the same directory as your error log. The `master.info' file is used by the slave to keep track of how much of the master's binary log it has processed. Do not remove or edit the file, unless you really know what you are doing. Even in that case, it is preferred that you use CHANGE MASTER TO command.

Now that you have a snapshot, you can use it to set up other slaves. To do so, follow the slave portion of the procedure described above. You do not need to take another snapshot of the master.

4.10.4 Replication Features and Known Problems

Here is an explanation of what is supported and what is not: